dic-, dict-

(Latin: talk, speak, say, tell, declare; to proclaim)

abdicable (AB di kuh buhl) (adjective), more abdicable, most abdicable
A reference to that which can be discarded, renounced, relinquished, or not wanted: Gina's abdicable responsibilities had been an excessive burden for her, so she had no regrets when she left her position as manager of the two stores.
abdicant (s) (noun), abdicants (pl)
Anyone who abandons or renounces a position or responsibility: The king became an abdicant when he gave up his throne so his son could take his place.
abdicate (AB duh kayt") (verb), abdicates; abdicated; abdicating
1. To renounce formally, which is commonly done by a monarch of a throne; to vacate a throne, to relinquish, to abandon: Edward VIII of England abdicated the throne so he could marry a commoner whom he loved.

A king can abdicate, renounce, or swear away his kingly privileges and duties.

2. To refuse to accept an obligation or responsibility: When Sharon was told to revise her book, as instructed by her editor, she suddenly abdicated her contract with the publisher because she didn't agree with the new format.
3. To proclaim or declare to be no longer one's own, to disclaim, disown, cast off, especially to disown or disinherit children: Gary Brown abdicated his responsibilities as a husband and father and never returned to be with his wife and children again.
4. To give up a right, trust, office, or dignity; to leave, to lay down, to surrender, to abandon; at first implying voluntary renunciation, but now including the idea of abandonment by default: Governments, both national and local, seem to be abdicating their responsibilities to provide a good education for all of their citizens by greatly reducing the financial expenditures that are needed.

Tom abdicated his responsibilities as a salesman and left town to look for another place to live.
5. To leave one's position, office, or power: Yielding to the pressure of public opinion, the president of the country is abdicating his political authority.

The outraged citizens forced the talk-show host to abdicate his radio program.

6. Etymology: from Latin ab-, "away" + dicare, "to proclaim". When people abdicate their positions, they "proclaim away" their authorities.

To renounce or to abandon a position.
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abdication (ab" duh KAY shuhn) (s) (noun), abdications (pl)
1. The act or fact of giving up a high office, a throne, or an authority; resignation: The council denied that their decision represented any abdication of responsibility.
2. The action of formally renouncing, disowning, or casting off; now only applied to the disowning of a son in Roman Law: In choosing the abdication of his son as his successor, the landlord broke the line of succession of ownership.
3. Resignation, surrender, abnegation: The abdication of Joy Little's position as judge left her with a sense of relief.
4. Resignation or abandonment, either formal or virtual, of sovereignty or other high trust: The abdication of Gerald Room's position as Chief Executive Officer surprised everyone.
5. A formal yielding or relinquishment of the ownership of goods by an insurer to the underwriters: The insurance company determined that the abdication of ownership of the ship was the only way to cut their losses when the ship was wrecked.

It seemed like a long summer of abdications; first the prince's abdication of the throne to marry the woman he loved, then we had the CEO's abdication of his position as head of the company.

6. Etymology: from Latin abdicationem; from ab-, "away" + dicare, "proclaim".
abdicator (s) (noun), abdicators (pl)
1. Someone who gives up a high office, formally or officially, especially a royal throne: The duke, by renouncing his title, was seen by many as an abdicator.
2. Anyone who fails to fulfill a duty or responsibility: The manager of the store lost his position because he was accused of being an abdicator of his duties.
Ad vindictam tardus, ad beneficientiam velox. (Latin motto)
Translation: "Punish slowly, do good quickly."

Motto of Henry I (918-936) who forced the dukes of Bavaria and Swabia to recognize his authority. He protected Saxony against the Slavs by building several fortresses and by creating a powerful cavalry which he used to defeat the invading Magyars on the Unstrut River in 933.

King Henry succeeded in annexing the key Carolingian realm of Lorraine to the east Franconian realm. He is regarded as the actual founder of the German Empire.

addicere (verb), addiceres; addicered; addicering
1. In civil law, to adjudge or to condemn; to assign, to allot, or to deliver; to sell: After Tom's father died, two wills were found, but only one could be valid. Following the information given by the lawyers, the judge addicered the handwritten one in favor of the typed one left in the bank deposit box.

In Roman law, addico was one of the three words used to express the extent of civil jurisdiction of the praetors who were ancient Roman magistrates acting as the chiefs of law officers of the state.

2. To determine by a judge; to pass on and to decide judicially: Jane's friend was discovered selling drugs and in court the judge addicered him guilty of the crime.
addict (s) (noun), addicts (pl)
1. A person who is overly engaged in his or her inclinations or desires to such a degree that it is impractical and can even be unhealthy: Susan loved her work so much and became so engaged in it that she became a real work addict, and did not have any extra time for her family or friends.
2. Someone who is obsessed by and devoted to the habitual and excessive use of a narcotic: Tim's friend was found to be a drug addict when his parents found cocaine hidden in his bedroom.

Why is it that drug addicts and computer enthusiasts are both called "users"?

  • Internet access has become a vital part of the modern world and an important tool in the education of children.
  • Like addiction to drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, or caffeine, internet addicts are showing symptoms of increasing tolerance, withdrawal, mood changes, and interruption of social relationships.
  • Children and adolescents who have become addicts of the internet often require increasing amounts of time online in order to feel satisfied.
  • When they do not have access to the internet, they may have symptoms of withdrawal, which include anxiety, depression, irritability, trembling hands, restlessness, and obsessive thinking or fantasizing about the internet.
  • Internet addiction is not limited just to introverted "computer-techies".
  • The internet can provide a welcome escape for individuals who already suffer from a variety of psychological difficulties; including, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem.
  • Additionally, those who have struggled with other types of addiction may more easily become obsessed with the internet.
—Compiled from excerpts in an article by
Macedonian Radio Television, MPT on-line, February 13, 2007.
addict (verb), addicts; addicted; addicting
1. To cause someone, or oneself, to become overly dependent on something or a person: Joyce, who was evidently addicted to and overly dependent on television, liked watching TV so much that she totally broke down and cried when a storm caused a temporary loss of electrical power and she couldn't watch anything for over an hour.

There is a significantly increasing number of people who are addicting themselves to foods that make them overly fat and unhealthy.

2. Etymology: from ad-, "to" + dicere, "to say, to declare".
addiction (uh DIK shuhn) (s) (noun), addictions (pl)
1. The devotion or the giving oneself habitually, or compulsively, to something; such as, caffeine or alcohol; but especially to narcotics: Harriet's novel emphasized the main character's recovery from drug addiction.
2. The conditions of being overwhelmed or uncontrollably committed to causes or to special objectives: Amy's main addiction is her excess devotion to operas where she spends a great deal of time and expenses attending them as often as possible.

Sally had an addiction for buying clothes, shoes, purses, and other items even though she didn't need them and didn't have enough space to put them where she could access them, as a result, she had very little money for other necessities; such as, food, making her car payments, paying her rent, etc.

3. Situations that involve compulsions and the need to continue taking drugs as a result of taking them in the past: Greg was trying to follow his doctor's advice to stop his crack addiction which he had had for years. Getting away from his old friends, who also had the same addictions, was extremely difficult and hindered him from turning away from that type of life.

For more information, see these compositions: Addicts and Addiction.

It is possible that a man could live twice as long if he didn't spend the first half of his life acquiring habits (addictions) that shorten the other half.

—E. C. McKenzie
addictionologist (s) (noun), addictionologists (pl)
A specialist in the study and treatment of those who are physiologically or mentally dependent on tobacco, alcohol, or other substances: His father was such a slave to smoking and booze, that it motivated Bryon to study and to become an addictionologist so he could help his father, and others, to overcome their uncontrollable dependence on such dangerous elements.
addictionology (s) (noun), addictionologies (pl)
The study, management, and treatment of physical and mental excesses that harm people because they can not control their over dependence on them: There are more and more reasons for there to be specialists in various forms of addictionologies because there are increases in the various kinds of uncontrollable compulsions that are expanding among our current societies around the world.
addictive (adjective), more addictive, most addictive
A reference to over dependence on doing something or that is very habit-forming: While studying medicine, Susan found out that being an addictive person doesn't necessarily have to relate to drugs but also to various kinds of activities; such as, having an endless desire to watch TV, or having an extreme passion for gambling, computer games, or even spending an excessive amount of time doing some kind of sport.
Alias dictus. (Latin term)
1. Translation: "Otherwise called."

"Samuel Langhorne Clemens, alias dictus was Mark Twain (1835 - 1910), who was an American author who wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer among several other novels."

2. Etymology: from Latin alias, "otherwise, at another time". Also from Latin dictus, the perfect passive participle of dico, "to say".
avenge (uh VENJ) (verb), avenges; avenged; avenging
1. To retaliate, to punish someone in order to get even with someone else or to hit back with the intention of achieving justice: Sam avenged his mother's injury by the careless driver by reporting him to the police.

Bill planned to avenge his brother's death by setting the murderer's house on fire.

The settlers avenged the burning of the fort by destroying an Indian village.

2. Etymology: from Old French avengier, from a-, "to" + vengier, "to take revenge", accusative of vis dicta, literally "announced force"; that is, "announcement of force"; from Latin vindicare, "to claim, to avenge, to punish"; from vim dicare, "to show authority", from vim, accusative of vis, "force" + root of dicere, "to say".
Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "talk, speak, speech; words, language; tongue, etc.": cit-; clam-; fa-; -farious; glosso-; glotto-; lalo-; linguo-; locu-; logo-; loqu-; mythico-; -ology; ora-; -phasia; -phemia; phon-; phras-; Quotes: Language,Part 1; Quotes: Language, Part 2; Quotes: Language, Part 3; serm-; tongue; voc-.