atmo-, atm- +
(Greek: vapor, steam; air, gas; respiration)
2. A fluids cooler that utilizes the cooling effect of ambient air surrounding hot, fluids-filled tubes.
The atmosphere acts in the same way as a glass prism. The path the light takes depends to a small extent on its wavelength.
As a result, the blue light from a star seems to come from slightly closer to the zenith than the red light.
2. In chemical engineering, a distillation operation conducted at atmospheric pressure, in contrast to vacuum distillation or pressure distillation.
2. Any interruption of a state of equilibrium of the atmosphere.
3. An area showing signs of a developing cyclonic circulation.
4. A periodic disturbance in the fields of atmospheric variables (like surface pressure or geopotential height, temperature, or wind velocity) which may either propagate (traveling wave) or not (stationary wave).
Atmospheric waves range in spatial and temporal scale from large-scale planetary waves (Rossby waves or giant meanders, twists and turns, in high-altitude winds that are a major influence on weather) to minute sound waves.
2. A critical perturbation of the orbits of closely adjacent low-orbit artificial satellites due to atmospheric resistance; the effects extending over ages of time are semidiameter, period, and decreasing eccentricity.
2. A stratum of the troposphere within which the refractive index varies so as to confine within he limits of the stratum the propagation of an abnormally large proportion of any radiation of sufficiently high frequency, as in a mirage.
Atmospheric ducting is a mode of propagation of electromagnetic radiation, usually in the lower layers of the earth’s atmosphere, where the waves are bent by atmospheric refraction.
A typical datum is about 100 and the field is directed vertically in such a way as to drive positive charges downward.2. A quantitative term indicating the electric field strength of the atmosphere at any specified point in space and time.
3. A measure, in volts per meter, of the electrical energy in a given portion of the earth's atmosphere at a given time.
2. The study of electrical processes occurring within the atmosphere.
3. Electrical phenomena, regarded collectively, that occur in the earth's atmosphere.
These phenomena include not only such striking manifestations as lightning and St. Elmo's fire, but also less noticeable but more ubiquitous effects; such as, atmospheric ionization, the air–earth currents, and other quiescent electrical processes.
The existence of separated electric charges in the atmosphere is a consequence of many minor processes; such as, spray electrification, dust electrification, etc. and a few major processes including, cosmic-ray ionization, radioactive-particle ionization, and thunderstorm electrification.
The maintenance of the prevailing atmospheric electric field is now widely believed to be due to thunderstorm effects.