atmo-, atm- +

(Greek: vapor, steam; air, gas; respiration)

atmolyze (verb), atmolyzes; atmolyzed; atmolyzing
To separate by amolysis or the process of partially separating mixtures of gases: Dr. Sharp showed his students that gases could be atmolyzed by dividing up those with differing amounts of diffusibility by the way of filtration.
atmometamorphism (s) (noun) (no pl)
The transformation of the structure of aqueous vapor, moisture, or steam in the air: The atmometamorphism of the steam arising into the air from the pot on the stove was fascinating and showed interesting shapes before disappearing completely from view.
atmometer, atmidometer, evaporimeter (s) (noun): atmometers, atmidometers, evaporimeters (pl)
An device that measures the rate at which water evaporates into the air; evaporation gage: An atmometer is the name for the instrument which determines the amount of evaporation of water, ice, or snow into the atmosphere.
atmometrics (s) (noun) (no pl)
The process of calculating the rate of evaporation of water into the atmosphere: Atmometrics involves the measuring of the evaporation of water from a free water surface, such as a pan of water set into the ground so the water's surface is even with the ground's surface, or from a porous, water-saturated surface, such as filter paper placed over a graduated cylinder of water.
atmometry (s) (noun) (no pl)
The study of measuring the rate and amount of evaporation of water: Lois felt like a scientist doing research in atmometry in order to find out how much rain water in the evaporation gage vaporized into the atmosphere at the end of the hot sunny day.
atmophyte (s) (noun), atmophytes (pl)
An epiphyte that obtains water by aerial assimilation over its entire surface: Bromoliads, air plants, various ferns, and some orchids are atmophytes because they grow on trees or other plants, but derive their nutrients and water from dew or from the humidity in the atmosphere.
atmosphere (s) (noun), atmospheres (pl)
1. The envelope of gases surrounding the earth and other celestial bodies which is held by the force of gravity: The atmosphere of the earth is being affected by pollution caused by the increased exploitation of natural resources.

The atmosphere consists of four distinct layers whose boundaries are not precise:

  • The "troposphere" (extending from sea level to about 5-10 miles [10 to 20 km] above the earth.
  • The "stratosphere" (up to about 30 miles [50 km]).
  • The "mesosphere" (up to about 60 miles [96 km]).
  • The "thermosphere" (up to about 300 miles or more [480 km]).

The upper region of the troposphere is often regarded as a separate region known as the "exosphere".

2. The gas bound gravitationally to a planet or the pressure of the air on the earth at mean sea level approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch or 760 millimeters high at 0 degrees Celsius under standard gravity: Through the powerful telescope, the astronomers were able to study the atmosphere of the distant planets.

Although some details about the atmospheres of other planets and satellites are known, only the earth's atmosphere has been well studied, the science of which is called "meteorology".

3. The outer layers of a star: The atmosphere surrounding the star appears to cause the twinkle effect which romantic couples dream about.
4. A supposed outer envelope of effective influences surrounding various bodies: The atmosphere of the capital city was one of individuals and corporations attempting to influence politicians.
5. Prevailing psychological climate; a pervading tone or mood; a characteristic mental or moral environment; a fascinating or beguiling association or effect: The atmosphere in the office appeared to be edgy as if there were major staff changes anticipated, but no one knew when that would happen.
6. Applied to the background sounds that evoke a particular mood, impression, setting, etc., in a broadcast program, etc.: The atmosphere created by the music was dark and mysterious.
7. The air in any particular place, especially as affected in its condition by heat, cold, purifying or contaminating influences, etc.: The old wood stove was not well maintained and smoked, creating a smoky atmosphere in the cabin.
8. The predominant tone or mood of a work of art, or the pervading quality, effect, or mood, especially as associated with a particular place: Henry lived in a dark old house with a depressing atmosphere.
9. A distinctively exotic or romantic quality or effect: Willy and Gertrude went to an Italian restaurant where there was lots of atmosphere.
atmospheric (adjective), more atmospheric, most atmospheric
1. Relating, referring to, or taking place in the area of skies surrounding the earth: The illumination by the lights of the city created an atmospheric haze above the city.
2. Dependent on, caused by, or resulting from the collection of gases surrounding the surface of the earth or other celestial bodies: The moon glimmered through the atmospheric mist caused by the wispy clouds in the sky.
3. Descriptive of a distinctive quality or effect in a location: The atmospheric music in the background of the restaurant encouraged patrons to relax and to enjoy their meals.
atmospheric absorption (s) (noun), atmospheric absorptions (pl)
1. The soaking up of radiation by the air and moisture in the mixture of gases surrounding the earth's surface: In Howard's physics class, two of the students invented a gauge to measure atmospheric absorption.
2. The reduction of the energy of microwaves by the presence of moisture in the gases surrounding the earth: The static in the skies at night in the local area appeared to cause the atmospheric absorption of the microwaves, which were interfering with the radar system.
atmospheric acoustics (s) (noun) (no pl)
The propagation of sound through the layer of gases surrounding the earth's surface affects sound in predictable ways depending on conditions, such as temperature and precipitation: When setting up for the outdoor concert, the sound engineers had to take atmospheric acoustics into consideration, including factors such as moisture in the air, placement of speakers on the ground, etc.
atmospheric attenuation (s) (noun), atmospheric attenuations (pl)
The depletion of electromagnetic energy in the layers of gases surrounding the surface of the earth because of absorptions or diffusions: The astronomers discovered that the rate of the atmospheric attenuation of the electric sound waves had decreased when passing through dense clouds.
atmospheric boil, terrestrial scintillation, atmospheric shimmer, optical haze (s) (noun); terrestrial scintillations; atmospheric shimmers; optical hazes; atmospheric boils (pl)
The generic term for scintillation phenomena observed in light that reaches the eyes from sources liying within the earth's atmosphere.

An atmospheric boil, or a scintillation, refers to the rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of electromagnetic or acoustic waves that have propagated through a medium containing fluctuations in refractive index, such as the atmosphere.

The most common example of optical scintillation is the "twinkling" of stars observed through the atmosphere because it arises as a result of random angular scattering produced by refractive index fluctuations.

Fluctuations in the amplitude of different frequency components in the spectrum of an object can give rise to apparent changes in its color (chromatic scintillation). An example is the random red and blue twinkling of bright stars near the horizon.

Scintillation statistics have been used to study turbulence in regions ranging from the planetary boundary layer to the ionosphere, as well as interplanetary and interstellar space and it is important for astronomical imaging, optical and radio communications, laser and acoustical propagation, active and passive remote sensing, and the performance of the Global Positioning System.

atmospheric boundary layer, surface boundary layer, friction layer (s) (noun); surface boundary layers; friction layers; atmospheric boundary layers (pl)
The thin layer of air adjacent to the earth's surface; surface layer: The atmospheric boundary layer is usually considered to be less than 300 feet (91 meters) high.

In the earth's atmosphere, the planetary boundary layer is the air layer near the ground affected by diurnal heat, moisture, or momentum transfer to or from the surface.

The thin layer of air adjacent to the earth's surface; ground layer: The atmospheric boundary layer extends up to the so-called anemometer level (the base of the Ekman layer [thin top layer of the sea]). Within this layer the wind distribution is determined largely by the vertical temperature gradient and the nature and contours of the underlying surface, and shearing stresses are approximately constant.

atmospheric braking (s) (noun), atmospheric brakings (pl)
The process of slowing down an object entering the atmosphere of the earth, or other planet from space, by using the drag exerted by air or other gas particles in the atmosphere and the action of the drag so exerted: Atmospheric brakings involve the deceleration of the speed of descent, such as that which is initiated or enhanced deliberately when landing a space vehicle as it encounters the drag of a planetary atmosphere.
atmospheric chemistry (s) (noun) (no pl)
The academic study of the production, transport, modification, and removal of atmospheric components in the troposphere and stratosphere: Jerry's mother is a scientist who does research in atmospheric chemistry involving the Earth's atmosphere in combination with environmental chemistry, physics, oceanography, and other disciplines.

Cross references of word groups that are related, directly or indirectly, to: "air, wind": aello-; aeolo-; aero-; anemo-; austro-; flat-, flatu-; phys-; pneo-, -pnea; pneumato-; turb-; vent-; zephyro-.