-ation, -ization (-iz[e] + -ation); -isation (British spelling variation)
(Greek > Latin: a suffix; action, act, process, state, or condition; or result of doing something)
Although there are over 1,450 word entries ending with -ation or -ization listed in this unit, there are certainly many more which exist in the English language. At any rate, this unit provides a significant number of -ation and -ization examples for you to see.
2. The act of being restored to life; revival.
3. Trimming of the surface layer of a wound to aid the union of tissues.
4. Transformation of protein through assimilation into the living matter of cellular organisms.
2. The sound made by the vibration of vocal folds modified by the resonance of the vocal tract: The bass, tenor, alto, and soprano are all good examples of vocalization and are very important sections in a chorus.
3. That which is voiced rather than voiceless: The vocalizations of letters exist when they are read out loud; otherwise, reading them silently does not produce any sounds.
2. A call to, or fitness for, a certain career; especially, a religious position: Susan decided to become a nun and to serve in the church as her vocation because she felt deep down inside that God wanted her to serve Him, so she went to a convent to live and work.
3. The work or profession for which one has a sense of special fitness: Thomas was very good at writing essays in school in foreign languages and so he loved to travel and he thought that his vocation would be that of a foreign correspondent for television or for a news agency.
4. A strong feeling of suitability for a particular career or occupation: Lisa loved playing piano and was quite successful playing in recitals as a student, and she and her teachers felt that she had the talent, competency and endurance to choose the vocation of being a professional pianist.
5. Etymology: borrowed from Middle French, or directly from Latin vocation-, vocatio-, "a call" or "a summons"; from Latin vocare, "to call", and is related to voc-, vox, "voice".
The original meaning of vocation in 1426 was "a call from God to follow a spiritual way of life", as in "the priestly vocation or "the vocation of a nun".
The sense of one's ordinary occupation, or profession, is first recorded in English in 1553; perhaps influenced by that meaning which existed in Middle French.
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2. The ability to fly.
2. The process of rendering something coarse and unrefined.
2. The surgical transfer of cells, tissues, or especially whole organs from one species to another.
The rationale for xenotransplantation is the short supply of human organs for transplantation.
The first to show that nonhuman organs could be transplanted to humans and function for a significant period of time was Dr. Keith Reemtsma (1925-2000).
At Tulane University in New Orleans, Dr. Reemtsma in 1963 and 1964 gave chimpanzee kidneys to five patients in the first chimpanzee-to-human transplants. The recipients died (of infection) from eight to sixty-three days after receiving a chimpanzee kidney.
Then, in 1964, Reemtsma transplanted a kidney from a chimpanzee to a 23-year-old teacher. She lived with it for nine months until succumbing to overwhelming infection.
Xenotransplantation is synonymous with "cross-species transplantation".
It is a sensitive indicator of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and is unaffected by anemia, which tends to elevate the ESR.
2. Arrangement or distribution in zones.
3. Arrangement or formation in zones; a zonate structure.
4. In ecology, the distribution of organisms in biogeographic zones.