2. A genus of viruses of the family Togaviridae (family of viruses that cause Western and Eastern equine encephalitis), including eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses, and others that cause dengue-like illnesses in parts of Africa.
What's in a name? Although arbor sounds as if it should have something to do with trees, it doesn't. It comes from the first two letters of arthropod + the first three letters of borne. Arborviruses are transmitted (borne) to humans by mosquitoes and ticks (arthropods).
Since the name Arborvirus proved too clever by far; the spelling had to be replaced by Arbovirus, dropping the second "r" because of the potential of misidentification with trees. The first two letters of each word, arthropod' and borne, became the arbo that now associates this category of viruses with arthropods.
- Norovirus, a common cause of food poisoning and acute gastroenteritis in humans.
- Sapovirus, formerly called "Sapporo-like virus" (SLV) and sometimes referred to as classic or typical calicivirus, which can also cause gastroenteritis in humans.
- Vesivirus, the swine vesicular exanthema virus.
- Lagovirus, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.
The hepatitis E virus, once considered a calicivirus, now belongs to an unassigned (or floating) genus called the hepatitis E-like viruses.
All of the caliciviruses are single-stranded RNA, nonenveloped viruses. Their genetic information is encoded in a single strand of RNA and they lack an envelope.
The name calicivirus comes from their characteristic "Star of David" shape with cup-shaped (chalice) indentations.
Some types of HPV are associated with tumors of the genital tract including, notably, cancer of the cervix.
Of the more than 100 types of HPVs, over 30 types can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact.
Most genital HPV infections come and go over the course of a few years; however, sometimes HPV infection may persist for many years, with or without causing cellular abnormalities.
The majority of HPVs produce warts on the hands, fingers, and even the face. Most of these viruses are innocuous, causing nothing more than cosmetic concerns. HPVs also can cause painful plantar warts; for example on the soles of the feet.
Several types of HPV, however, are confined primarily to the moist skin of the genitals, producing genital warts and increasing the risk for cancer of the cervix.
The most common forms of human papilloma viruses cause cervical cancer
In the United States, cervical carcinoma was once a leading cause of death for women under the age of sixty. Routine Pap smear testing by gynecologists have dramatically reduced the numbers because they are able to catch the pre-cancerous changes HPV causes in cervical cells at an early stage.
- Internationally, most of the world's women have no access to routine gynecological care and are rarely screened for any type of women's health problem.
- One result is that cervical carcinoma annually kills some 300,000 women worldwide.
- HPV is not solely transmitted through sexual contact.
- It is considerably more contagious than HIV, syphilis or gonorrhea, and can be spread through handshakes, toilet seats, and childbirth; if the transmitting individual has genital warts, which is the most common visual evidence of HPV infection.
- Human papilloma virus is so strong that it can not be blocked 100 percent even by proper condom use.
- Even married, monogamous women get infected with HPV, and can contract terminal cancer.
- Science and humanity should guide preventive policies; such as, with immunization vaccines, not by wishful thinking and moral absolutism.
The norovirus causes an infection in the stomach and the intestines, resulting in an illness called gastroenteritis, or "stomach flu". This "stomach flu" is not related to the influenza, or "flu", which is a respiratory illness caused by an influenza virus.
It should be noted that norovirus is not related to bacteria and parasites which can also cause gastrointestinal illnesses.
Norovirus is not a "new" virus, but recent interest in it is growing as more is learned about how frequently norovirus is causing illness in people.
2. A virus capable of causing cancer in animals or in humans. These include DNA viruses, ranging in size from Papova viruses to Herpes viruses and the RNA containing retroviruses.
2. In veterinary medicine, an often fatal disease of dogs caused by a parvovirus, characterized by diarrhea and vomiting.
3. Parvoviruses; a genus of viruses of the subfamily Parvovirinae (family Parvoviridae) that infect mammals and birds. Viruses multiply in the nucleus and require S-phase cellular functions for replication.
Bovine parvovirus, a virus of the genus Parvovirus infecting cattle that causes diarrhea in calves; infection during the first or second trimesters of gestation may result in abortion. Infection is widespread and antibody to the virus can be found in a high proportion of adult cattle.
Canine parvovirus, a virus of the genus Parvovirus that causes myocarditis in dogs and a type of enteritis called canine parvovirus disease; it is sometimes considered to be a species-specific variant of feline parvovirus.
Feline parvovirus, a virus of the genus Parvovirus that primarily affects cats. Canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus, and mink enteritis virus are sometimes considered to be host-specific variant strains.
Goose parvovirus, a virus of the genus Parvovirus that causes a highly fatal disease of young geese affecting the liver, thyroid, and pancreas.
Porcine parvovirus, A worldwide virus of pigs that has been associated with infertility and abortion.
Transmission is transplacental or by mechanical vector. Human parvoviruses cause transient aplastic crisis, acute arthritis, erythema infectiosum, hydrops fetalis, spontaneous abortion, and fetal death.
Animal pathogens include such animals as: bovine, canine, feline, and goose parvoviruses, feline panleukopenia virus, mink enteritis virus, Aleutian mink disease virus, and various murine parvoviruses.