turb-, turbin-, turbo-, turbu-
(Latin: uproar, commotion, disorderly, agitated, confusion; whirl, whirlwind)
2. The quality or state of being turbid; muddiness; foulness.
There are usually several of these plates in each nasal chamber. The upper ones, connected directly with the ethmoid bone, are called ethmoturbinals, and the lower, connected with the maxillae, maxillo-turbinals.
Incurved portions of the wall of the nasal chamber are sometimes called pseudoturbinals, to distinguish them from the true turbinals which are free outgrowths into the chambers.
2. A bone shaped like a top. The turbinate is a bone in the nose which is an extension of the ethmoid bone, is situated along the side wall of the nose, and is covered by mucous membrane.
The word turbinate is related to a turbine; derived from Latin turbo, "a whorl", "an eddy", or "a spiral shell". The turbinate in the nose was so named because it is a curled shelf of bone protruding from the lateral (side) wall of the nasal cavity.
Although tornado is said by some to come from Latin turbo, it apparently does not. Etymologists say tornado is more closely related to Latin tonare, "to thunder".
2. Scroll-like; whorled; spiraled.
3. In anatomy, a reference to certain scroll-like, spongy bones of the nasal passages in humans and other vertebrates.
2. A general term for any machine capable of generating rotary mechanical power by converting the kinetic energy of a stream of fluid; such as water, steam, or hot gas.
Turbines operate through the principle of impulse or reaction, or a combination of the two.
Turbines have been around for hundreds of years
- Primitive hydraulic turbines made of wooden discs carrying straight blades were believed to exist in Egypt and Mesopotamia in the 5th century B.C.
- Turbines were also in existence in ancient India and China in about the same time period.
- These early machines were used for milling corn and other cereals.
- Until the end of the Middle Ages, hydraulic and wind turbines were the only non-animal source of mechanical power.
- The modern development of the hydraulic turbine began towards the end of the 18th century where it powered sawmills, textile, and manufacturing industries.
- The first steam turbines in commercial service were installed in the norther United States by W. Avery, in 1831, to power some sawmills.
- Modern development of steam turbines began in the 1920s when large industrial groups like General Electric, Allis-Chalmers, Westinghouse, and Brown-Boveri applied these machines to generate electricity.
- The significant advances for the gas turbine came from its aeronautic applications.
- The majority of fossil fuel thermo-electrical conversion locations use steam turbines, and gas turbines as mechanical converters.
The turbinate is a bone in the nose; and it is an extension of the ethmoid bone which is situated along the side wall of the nose, and is covered by mucous membrane.
Submucous turbinectomy, or the removal of the turbinate bone without removing the overlying mucous membrane, has been found to reduce nasal discharge, sneezing, and nasal stiffness in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (annual runny nose from allergy).
2. An exhaust gas-driven device consisting of a shaft with two vaned fan-type wheels at each end.
At the hot end, the turbine wheel is driven by the hot pressurized exhaust gases, while at the opposite end, the compressor wheel pressurizes the ambient air supply into the engine intake manifold.
2. A jet aircraft that has turbofan engines.
A type of gas turbine in which the fan driving air into a turbojet also forces additional air around the outside of the turbine, combining it with the exhaust of the turbojet to provide thrust.
Turbofans are quieter than simple turbojets and somewhat more fuel efficient, and are widely used in commercial aircraft.