-tron, -tronic, -tronics +
(Greek: a suffix referring to a device, tool, or instrument; more generally, used in the names of any kind of chamber or apparatus used in experiments)
A possible allusion to the Greek instrumental suffix, as in árotron, "plow" as spelled in the U.S. or "plough", as spelled by the British; from the Greek stem aroun, "to plow".
The suffix -tron is the result of the combining form extracted from electron, used with nouns or combining forms, principally in the names of electron tubes (ignitron; klystron; magnetron) and of devices for accelerating subatomic particles (cosmotron; cyclotron); also, more generally, in the names of any kind of chamber or apparatus used in experiments (biotron).
2. An instrument related to the electron microscope, in which a beam of electrons strikes the sample, showing crystal pattern and other physical attributes on the resulting diffraction pattern: An electron diffractograph is used for chemical analysis, atomic structure determination, etc.
2. A function that produces the number of electrons per unit volume of phase space.
2. A chemical element that donates electrons to another compound.
It is a reducing agent which, because of its donating electrons, is itself oxidized in the process.
It may be caused by an electric field, light, heat, or impact chemical disintegration.2. A liberation of electrons from a substance into a vacuum.
Since all substances consist of atoms and since all atoms contain electrons, any substance may emit electrons; usually, however, the term refers to the emission of electrons from the surface of a solid.3. The freeing of electrons into space from the surface of a body under the influence of heat, light, impact, chemical disintegration, or a potential difference.
2. In a cathode tube, the electrode which serves as a source for electrons.
2. A quantum-mechanical concept for energy levels of electrons around the nucleus.
Electron energies are functions of each particular atomic species.
2. A current produced by the motion of free electrons toward a positive terminal.
The direction of electron flow is opposite to that of the current.
2. A device that directs a steady stream of electrons in a desired direction; for example, in a cathode-ray tube.
Electron guns are also used in oil refining and various other industries.3. An electrode structure that produces and may control, focus, and deflect a beam of electrons; such as, in a television picture tube, where the beam produces a visual pattern on the tube's screen.
The source of the electron beam is the cathode, a flat metal support covered with oxides of barium and strontium.
When they are heated by a coil behind the support, these oxides produce electrons, that are drawn toward a positively charged sleeve (first anode) which is contoured to allow the electron beam to flow within the inside diameter.
The beam is then electrostatically constricted and collimated by a metal disk with a hole (the
2. In a semiconductor, the electron vacancy in the valence (combining power of atoms) band that occurs when an electron jumps the gap from the filled valence band to the empty conduction band.
It serves as a positive charge carrier, allowing electrons deeper in the band to move into the vacated area.
A valence is the combining power of atoms or groups measured by the number of electrons the atom or group will receive, give up, or share in forming a compound.
It provides much greater plowers of magnification than an optical microscope; that is, up to 1,000,000 times actual size without loss of sharpness and degree of contrast in the image.2. An electronic instrument that scans cell and tissue sections with a beam of electrons instead of visible light.
The specimen is stained with electron-opaque dyes and with its high magnification power, it creates an image that can be photographed or viewed on a florescent screen.3. A device for directing streams of electrons by means of electric and magnetic fields in a manner similar to the direction of visible light rays by means of glass lenses in an ordinary microscope.
Since electrons carry waves of much smaller wavelengths than light waves, correspondingly greater magnifications can be obtained.
The electron microscope will resolve details from 1,000 to 10,000 times finer than the optical microscope and images can be studied on a fluorescent screen or recorded photographically.
The beam is moved in a point-to-point manner over the surface of the specimen and these electrons are deflected collected, accelerated, and directed against a scintillator.
The large number of photons that are created are converted into an electric signal which, in turn, modulates the beam scanning the surface of the specimen.
2. The arrangement of electrons at various distances from the nucleus of an atom, according to the energy that they have.
Those with the least energy are in the shell closest to the nucleus, traditionally called the K shell, which can hold no more than two electrons.
The Q shell, farthest from the nucleus, can hold 98 electrons, but it is never completely filled.
2. An electronic apparatus that consists, typically, of a sealed glass bulb containing two or more electrodes.
It is used to generate, to amplify, and to rectify electric oscillations and alternating currents.3. An electron device in which electricity is conducted by electrons moving through a vacuum or gaseous medium within an hermetically sealed envelope.
A tube can perform rectification, amplification, modulation, demodulation, oscillation, limiting, and a variety of other activities.
Examples include cathode-ray tubes, gas tubes, phototubes, and vacuum tubes.
2. A unit of energy defined as the kinetic energy acquired by an electron that is accelerated through a potential difference of one volt; equivalent to 1.6022 x 10-19 joules.
3. A unit of energy used in atomic and nuclear physics, equal to the energy gained by an electron.
4. A unit of electrical energy used in nuclear physics.
It is equal to the energy gained by an electron when it moves from one point to a point higher in potential by one volt and it is a unit of energy or work, not of voltage.
2. Drilling of tiny holes in a ferrite, semiconductor, or other material by using a sharply focused electron beam to melt and evaporate or sublimate the material in a vacuum.