tono-, -tonia, -tone, -tony, -tonic, -tonical (tension) +
(Greek: tension, pressure)
The element tono- is a combining form with the meanings "stretching, tension, tone", used in the formation of compound words.
The suffix element -tonia is a combining form with the meanings of "muscle tension" or "nerve tension"; as specified by the initial element: hypertonia; used also in the formation of words that denote more generally a personality type or personality disorder; for example, catatonia and somatotonia.
2. One of a system of fibers found in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells.
3. A bundle of fine filaments (tonofilaments) in certain cells, especially epithelial cells, the individual strands of which transverse the cytoplasm in all directions and extend into the cell processes to converge and insert on the desmosomes; they are thought to have a supportive or cytoskeletal function and, in keratinizing epithelia, to be the principal precursor of cytokeratin.
2. Continuous measurement of intraocular pressure to determine the facility of aqueous outflow, used to determine the presence of glaucoma.
3. The procedure of recording measurements (as of intraocular pressure) with a tonometer.
2. An instrument by which intraocular pressure is measured; also called, ophthalmotonometer.
2. A procedure that measures the pressure inside the eyes. This is a screening test for glaucoma and is performed by an ophthalmologist.
2. A condition in which the vagus nerve dominates the general functioning of the body organs: Manfred's vagotonia was marked by vasomotor (the nerves and muscles that cause blood vessels to constrict or to dilate), instability, constipation, sweating, and involuntary motor spasms with pain.