tono-, -tonia, -tone, -tony, -tonic, -tonical (tension) +
(Greek: tension, pressure)
The element tono- is a combining form with the meanings "stretching, tension, tone", used in the formation of compound words.
The suffix element -tonia is a combining form with the meanings of "muscle tension" or "nerve tension"; as specified by the initial element: hypertonia; used also in the formation of words that denote more generally a personality type or personality disorder; for example, catatonia and somatotonia.
2. The condition (in muscle or muscular tissue) of being hypertonic.
3. A condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles; increased resistance of muscle to passive stretching.
2. Having a higher osmotic pressure of two solutions.
2. A condition in which there is diminution or loss of muscular tonicity, resulting in the stretching of the muscles beyond their normal limits.
3. A condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles, resulting in the diminished resistance of muscles to passive stretching.
4. The condition (in muscle or muscular tissue) of being hypotonic.
2. Having a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution, which is ordinarily assumed to be blood plasma or interstitial fluid; more specifically, it refers to a fluid in which cells would swell.
2. A biological term denoting a solution in which body cells can be bathed without a net flow of water across the semipermeable cell membrane. It also refers to a solution having the same tonicity as some other solution with which it is compared; such as, physiological salt solution and the blood serum.
2. Normal tension under pressure or stimulus.
3. The property of a solution in being isotonic.
2. A reference to a condition produced by relatively great activity or stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and characterized by goose bumps, vascular spasm, and abnormally high blood pressure.
2. To make muscles firmer and stronger.
3. The normal degree of vigour and tension, in muscle, the resistance to passive elongation or stretch, tonus.
2. The normal elastic tension of living muscles, arteries, etc., by which the tone of the system is maintained.
3. A state of normal tension of the tissues by virtue of which the parts are kept in shape, alert, and ready to function in response to a suitable stimulus.
In the case of muscle, it refers to a state of continuous activity or tension beyond that which is related to physical properties; i.e., it is active resistance to stretch; in skeletal muscle it is dependent upon the efferent innervation.4. The osmotic pressure or tension of a solution, usually relative to that of blood.
a. Tonic: Producing and restoring the normal tone; characterized by continuous tension.
b. Clonic, clonus: A form of movement marked by contractions and relaxations of a muscle, occurring in rapid succession.