tono-, -tonia, -tone, -tony, -tonic, -tonical (tension) +

(Greek: tension, pressure)

The element tono- is a combining form with the meanings "stretching, tension, tone", used in the formation of compound words.

The suffix element -tonia is a combining form with the meanings of "muscle tension" or "nerve tension"; as specified by the initial element: hypertonia; used also in the formation of words that denote more generally a personality type or personality disorder; for example, catatonia and somatotonia.

hypertonia, hypertonias
1. Increased rigidity, tension, and spasticity of the muscles.
2. The condition (in muscle or muscular tissue) of being hypertonic.
3. A condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles; increased resistance of muscle to passive stretching.
1. Having an extreme muscular or arterial tension; spastic.
2. Having a higher osmotic pressure of two solutions.
hypertony, hypertonies
hypotonia, hypotonus
1. A state of reduced pressure of the intra-ocular fluid.
2. A condition in which there is diminution or loss of muscular tonicity, resulting in the stretching of the muscles beyond their normal limits.
3. A condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles, resulting in the diminished resistance of muscles to passive stretching.
4. The condition (in muscle or muscular tissue) of being hypotonic.
1. Having a lesser degree of tension.
2. Having a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution, which is ordinarily assumed to be blood plasma or interstitial fluid; more specifically, it refers to a fluid in which cells would swell.
A condition of tonic equality in which tension or osmotic pressure in two substances or solutions is the same.
1. A muscle exercise in which the muscles remain under relatively constant tension; such as, when lifting weights or when doing other exercises.
2. A biological term denoting a solution in which body cells can be bathed without a net flow of water across the semipermeable cell membrane. It also refers to a solution having the same tonicity as some other solution with which it is compared; such as, physiological salt solution and the blood serum.
1. The quality of possessing and maintaining a uniform tone or tension.
2. Normal tension under pressure or stimulus.
3. The property of a solution in being isotonic.
Deficient or lack of normal muscle tone.
The inability to relax voluntary muscle for a period following its use; any condition characterized by this.
The indirect estimation of intraocular pressure by determining the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force; also, tonometry.
sympatheticotonic, sympathicotonic
1. Referring to the state or condition in which there is increased influence of the sympathetic nervous system and heightened sensitivity to adrenalin.
2. A reference to a condition produced by relatively great activity or stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and characterized by goose bumps, vascular spasm, and abnormally high blood pressure.
1. The natural firmness of muscles, or of the body generally, when not being flexed.
2. To make muscles firmer and stronger.
3. The normal degree of vigour and tension, in muscle, the resistance to passive elongation or stretch, tonus.
1. The elastic tension of living muscles, arteries, etc. that facilitate response to stimuli.
2. The normal elastic tension of living muscles, arteries, etc., by which the tone of the system is maintained.
3. A state of normal tension of the tissues by virtue of which the parts are kept in shape, alert, and ready to function in response to a suitable stimulus.

In the case of muscle, it refers to a state of continuous activity or tension beyond that which is related to physical properties; i.e., it is active resistance to stretch; in skeletal muscle it is dependent upon the efferent innervation.

4. The osmotic pressure or tension of a solution, usually relative to that of blood.
tonoclonic, tonicoclonic
Both tonic and clonic; said of a spasm or seizure consisting of a convulsive twitching of the muscles.

a. Tonic: Producing and restoring the normal tone; characterized by continuous tension.

b. Clonic, clonus: A form of movement marked by contractions and relaxations of a muscle, occurring in rapid succession.

Related "tension" words at this tend-, tendo- unit.