tonitro-, tonitru-

(Latin: thunder)

thunder (s), thunders (pl) (noun forms)
1. A booming or crashing noise caused by air expanding along the path of a bolt of lightning.
2. Noise resembling thunder; such as, a loud deep rumbling noise resembling thunder.
3. A manifestation of someone's anger in an explosion of strong words.
4. Etymology: from Middle English thuner, later thunder which came from Old English ├żunor, from Proto German thunraz, "to resound", "to thunder". It is also believed to be from a distant Latin tonare, "to thunder", tonitrus, "thunder".

Thunder is the sound emitted by rapidly expanding gases along the channel of a lightning discharge. Over three-quarters of lightning's electrical discharge is used in heating the gases in the atmosphere in and immediately around the visible channel.

Temperatures can rise to over 10,000 degrees centigrade in microseconds, resulting in a violent pressure wave, composed of compression and rarefaction.

The rumble of thunder is created as one's ear catches other parts of the discharge, the part of the lightning flash nearest registering first, then the parts farther away.

thunder, thunders, thundered, thundering (verb forms)
1. To produce thunder: "It was raining and thundering all night which made it difficult to sleep."
2. To make a loud sound like that of thunder: "The guns thundered in the distance as the rebels were being attacked by the country's military forces." 3. To move in a way which makes a loud sound: "Trucks thundered by the motel even during the night."
4. To shout something with loud approval or disapproval: "The crowd thundered its approval of what the speaker suggested could be a solution to the poor economic situation."
thunderbolt (s), thunderbolts (pl) (noun forms)
A flash of lightening which makes a loud sound of thunder and hits something or someone: "Thunderbolts could be seen hitting the high towers in the distance."

Sometimes the term is used in a figurative way: "The news of the politician revealing his naked body on the internet shocked his supporters like a thunderbolt."

thunderclap (s), thunderclaps (pl) (noun forms)
A very sharp and loud sound made by thunder: "We were suddenly wide awake as a result of several thunderclaps during the night."
thunderous (adjective)
Making a loud noise like the sound of thunder; that is, very loud: "The audience gave the actors a thunderous applause."
thunderously (adverb)
A loud noise that resembles the sound of thunder: "The politician walked on to the stage as the audience thunderously applauded his appearance."
thunderstorm (s), thunderstorms (pl) (noun forms)
Storms that consist of lightning and thunder: "The weather forecast on TV warned residents of potentially severe thunderstorms for tomorrow."
thundery (adjective)
A reference to sounds representing thunder: "The thundery sounds could be heard during the day; however, very little rain fell in our area."
tonitrate, tonitrates, tonitrated, tonitrating (verb forms)
To produce thunder: "They could hear the tonitrating as the sky got darker in the afternoon."
tonitrophobia, tonitruphobia (s) (noun), tonitrophobias, tonitruphobias (pl)
An excessive fear of thunder: During the night as it started to storm and rumble, her tonitrophobia made it impossible for her to go back to sleep.
tonitrous (adjective)
1. Full of or characterized by thunder, loud noise, or violent utterance; thundery; thundering.
2. Reverberating with the sound of thunder
Pertaining to, or loaded with, thunder.
tonitruone (s), tonitruones (pl) (noun forms)
1. An instrument used to imitate thunder.
2. Devices used in theaters or movies to create thunder.
tornado (s), tornadoes (pl) (noun forms)
1. An extremely destructive funnel-shaped rotating column of air that passes in a narrow path over land.
2. A short-lived but severe windstorm, especially one that occurs on the West African coast.
3. A state of frenzied activity or intense emotion, or someone in such a state.
4. Etymology: from 1556, a navigator's word for violent windy thunderstorm in the tropical Atlantic, probably a borrowing from Spanish tronada, "thunderstorm", from tronar, "to thunder"; from Latin tonare, "to thunder".

Tornadoes occur chiefly during thunderstorms. If the tip of the funnel touches the ground, it can cause extensive damage.

A tornado becomes visible when a condensation funnel made of water vapor (a funnel cloud) forms in extreme low pressures, or when the tornado lifts dust, dirt, and debris upward from the ground.

A mature tornado may be columnar or tilted, narrow or broad; sometimes so broad that it appears as if the parent thundercloud itself had descended to ground level.

Cross references of word groups that are related, directly or indirectly, to: "lightning and/or thunder": astrapo-; bronto-; cerauno-, kerauno-; fulgur-.