sub-, suc-, suf-, sug-, sum-, sup-, sur-, sus-, su-

(Latin: under, below, beneath; used as a prefix as shown in various formats below)

Don't confuse the sur- in this element with the sur- in super-. Note: sub- regularly means "under", but it often changes its form as it retains or keeps its meaning:

The prefix sub- often becomes suc- before c: succumb.

The prefix sub- often becomes suf- before f: suffuse.

The prefix sub- often becomes sug- before g: suggest.

The prefix sub- often becomes sum- before m: sumptuous.

The prefix sub- often becomes sup- before p: suppression.

The prefix sub- often becomes sur- before r: surrogate.

The prefix, sub- is often simplified to su- before sp; as seen in suspect, suspend, suspicion, suspension, et al. Before c, p, and t; it is sometimes formed into sus-.

subsidize (verb), subsidizes; subsidized; subsidizing
1. To contribute money to somebody or something, especially to give a government grant to a private company, an organization, or a charity to help it to continue to be active: The bill before the government was to end the policy which was subsidizing political parties with the use of tax payers' money.
2. To pay for a part of something or to reduce the cost of something by funding it with money: Because she was only working part time, Trudy was grateful that the city was subsidizing her rent for the first three months.
To support with a monetary contribution or to aid and to promote; such as, a private enterprise with public money.
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subsidy (s) (noun), subsidies (pl)
1. A grant or gift of money from a government to a private company, organization, or charity to help it to continue functioning.
2. To help with expenses; a monetary gift or a contribution to somebody or something; especially, to pay expenses.
3. A sum of financial aids that are paid, often in accordance with a treaty, by one government to another one in order to have some service in return.
5. Etymology: From Old French subside, "help, aid, contribution"; from Latin subsidium, "help, aid, assistance, (military) reinforcements"; from sub, "behind, near" + sedere, "to sit".
subsist (verb), subsists; subsisted; subsisting
1. To remain alive, usually at a very low standard of living: With a very minimum wage, Thomas was sure he could still subsist and be able to buy the necessaries he needed for at least a week.
2. To stay in effect or being: Jill was hoping that peace would subsist between the two countries for a long time.
subsistence (s) (noun), subsistences (pl)
1. Survival; the minimal amount of resources for living: Tom was without a job, without money, in total poverty, and had no procurable means of subsistence, like food!
2. The fact of existing in truth: The presence, or subsistence, of life has allowed many creatures to inhabit and populate the earth.
subsistent (adjective); more subsistent, most subsistent
1. Referring to someone or something that exists: Rebecca was very surprised when she actually saw the subsistent amphibian in the zoo and not only having read about it in her biology book at school.
2. Inherent: The subsistent attributes of her character allowed her to receive the award for being the most exceptional colleague in the firm.
1. The layer of soil between the topsoil and bedrock.
2. The compacted soil beneath the topsoil.
substance (s) (noun), substances, (pl)
1. A particular kind of matter that consists of uniform properties: The plumber used a pipe that was coated with an oily substance.
2. The physical matter of which something is made: The food that anyone eats is a substance which is tangible or can be touched.
3. Wealth, possessions, and property: Wolfgang has become a man of substance since he started his computer business.
Something that is solid or real; material possessions or wealth.
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In addition to the following locations, this word entry has a link to this index: Word a Day Revisited Index of Cartoons Illustrating the Meanings of Words (page 36)
substandard (adjective); more substandard, most substandard
1. Concerning merchandise of inferior quality: The chair Mr. Smith bought for his living room was evidently made of substandard pieces of wood because soon after buying it, it fell apart and he had to repair it!
2. Referring to something which is second-rate; below a prescribed criterion: The Jackson family had to live in a substandard housing complex because they just didn't have the money to afford a better appartment.
substantial (adjective); more substantial, most substantial
1. Pertaining to something which is quite large or significant: The caretakers set up a substantial number of seats for the guests for the big farewell party at the office.
2. Concerning a sufficient and plentiful amount of food: Before going on the long hike up the mountain, Jack and Jill had a very substantial and wholesome breakfast at the hotel.
3. Regarding the excellent quality or condition of something: Janet wanted her house to be build solidly with substantial timber, and not with plywood.
4. Characterizing a fact with a firm basis; not imaginary: Sam and Susan had a substantial and happy relationship which was fundamental for living together for so many years!
5. Descriptive of something worthwhile or important: The politicians were thinking of making substantial reforms regarding the tax system.
6. Denoting wealth or importance: Because Grace had substantial funds in the bank, she was able to go on trips around the world every year!
substantiate (verb), substantiates; substantiated; substantiating
1. To verify or to prove something by supplying evidence or facts: The officer asked the witness if she had the facts to substantiate the information she was providing about the bank robbery.
2. To make real or actual by providing evidence which proves that something actually exists: The research that the agronomists (soil scientists) did on their trip to the desert will substantiate the theories they were proposing about water conservation and plant growth.
To support with proof or evidence.
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To establish with competent evidence.
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substantiation (s) (noun), substantiations (pl)
1. Validation; the truth found by confirmation: Some types of substantiation are a crosscheck, a redundancy check, a checksum, or a bed check in which each one has been verified as correct.
2. The act of verifying and corroborating something: Through substantiation or probate by the lawyer, the will was proven to be in accordance to the law of the country.
substitute (verb), substitutes; substituted; substituting
1. To exchange one thing for another equivalent thing: For the salad dressing, a normal onion can be substituted for a spring onion.
2. To fill in, as to cover for someone: Mrs. Smith had to substitute for Mr. Thompson because he was sick that day.
3. To replace: Some of the old parts of the machine were rusty and had to be substituted with new ones.
substitution (s) (noun), substitutions (pl)
1.The action of replacing one thing or person with another: The principal wanted to have Mr. Jones as the substitution for Mrs. Hathaway, but Mr. Jones wasn't available after all.
2. That which is replaced: When at the restaurant, Jill wanted to have vegetables instead of french fries, but the waiter said substitutions were not allowed.
3. An individual or thing that acts as an alternative or replacement: Dr. Good proposed a cast for Jim's broken arm as a substitution for surgery and a stay at the hospital which appealed to Jim very much!