soma-, som-, somat-, somato-, -soma, -some, -somus, -somia, -somic, -somal, -somite, -somatous, -somatia, -somatic

(Greek: body; mass)

chromosome analysis
A laboratory procedure that isolates the chromosome pairs so they may be visualized.
chromosome coil
The spiral formed by the coiling of two or more chromonemata (coiled mass of threads visible within a nucleus at the start of cell division) in a chromosome.
chromosome karyotype test
A blood test used to study an individual's chromosome makeup to determine chromosomal defects associated with disease or the risk of developing disease.

It is useful in evaluating congenital anomalies, mental retardation, and delayed puberty as well as in the prenatal diagnosis of serious congenital diseases; such as, Klinefelter syndrome and Down syndrome and other suspected genetic disorders.

chromosome mapping
The process of determining the position of specific genes on specific chromosomes and constructing a diagram of each chromosome showing the relative positions of the genes.
chromosome painting
An attachment of certain fluorescent dyes to targeted parts of the chromosome.

Used as a diagnostic for particular diseases; for example, types of leukemia.

chromosome puff
A band of accumulated chromatin located at a specific site on a giant chromosome.

It is indicative of gene activity; specifically, DNA and RNA synthesis at that site.

Such bands appear at certain chromosomal locations within a given tissue at specific developmental states in insects and are significant in the study of the mode of genetic transmission.

1. The body of a cell apart from its nucleus.
2. The cell body exclusive of the nucleus.
The outer layer of a leuconoid sponge which is devoid of flagellated chambers.
1. That part of a plant that produces an oily secretion.
2. A fleshy, protein-rich "food patch" on some seeds or fruits which is attractive to ants and so aids the dispersal of the seeds.

The elaiosome is rich in lipids and proteins, and may be variously shaped. Many plants have elaiosomes to attract ants, which take the seeds to their nest and feed the elaiosome to their larvae.

After the larvae have consumed the elaiosome, the ants take the seed to their waste disposal area, which is rich in nutrients from the ant frass (fine powdery material phytophagous or plant-eating insects pass as waste after digesting plant parts) and dead bodies, where the seeds can germinate.

This type of seed dispersal is termed myrmecochory, from Greek myrmex, "ant" and kore, "dispersal" and is discussed in more detail at the link indicated in this sentence.

The contents of an erythrocyte or a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues.

It is also called a red blood cell (RBC). The reddish color is due to the hemoglobin.

endosome, endoplasts
A more or less central body in the vesicular nucleus of certain protozoa.

The endosome is characteristic of trypanosomes, parasitic amebas, and phytoflagellates.

1. A system for determining the environmental influences on human health and disease which include scientific advances that may be used in the identification, quantification, and control of environmental impacts on human health.

Exposome represents everything a person is exposed to in the environment including stress, diet, lifestyle choices, recreational and medicinal drug use, and infections; and it changes throughout life as our bodies, diets, and lifestyles change.

2. The record of all exposures, both internal and external, that an individual receives over his or her lifetime, from conception onward.

These exposures range from chemicals in the environment to the body’s response to infection or psychological stress.

3. Everything that a person encounters in daily life; from diet and drug use to stress, and what risks these exposures pose to an individual's health, and to unravel the causes of disease.

As biomonitoring tools become wearable to monitor an individual's exposure to environmental pollutants, and when such devices can work in real time, people will have better control of their exposome existence.

In this way, the exposome could pave the way for the personalized medicine that the human genome has promised but which has not yet been achieved.

4. An approach using various genomic, proteomic (structure and analysis of proteins occurring in living organisms), and metabolomic (chemical reactions in living organisms to maintain life) methods to gather the information needed to characterize the exposome; for example, measuring gene expression, protein adducts, metals, and metabolites in human blood, and then using data analysis to sort out which ones are related to a disease.
gigantosoma (s) (noun), gigantosomas (pl)
An older term for "gigantism" or the state or quality of having an excessively large stature or body; therefore, being of an abnormally large size.
1. The anterior part of the body of mites and ticks which bears the mouth and mouth parts.
2. That division of the acarine (mite or tick) body which has a mouth opening and mouth parts.
In zoology or ichthyology, having a body deviating from the normal type; said especially of flat fish, that have the two sides of the body asymmetrical.