sclero-, scler-

(Greek: skleros tough, toughen; hard, hardening; dry up)

arteriosclerosis (s) (noun), arterioscleroses (pl)
Any of the various growing and increasing rapidly degenerative changes in the arteries or blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the other areas of the body: Arteriosclerosis is a result of the thickening of the walls of the blood vessels, a loss of clasticity (separating and dividing), and in some cases, calcium deposition: After a physical examination, Mildred's doctor told her that she had arteriosclerosis involving a diminished elasticity in her arterial walls due to her normal aging processes which is commonly called the "hardening of the arteries".
multiple sclerosis (MS) (s) (noun), multiple scleroses (pl)
1. The hardening and thickening of body tissue occurring in patches in the brain or spinal cord, or both: Multiple sclerosis can cause symptoms ranging from numbness and tingling, to paralysis and incontinence. It is also characterized by tremors, failure of coordination, and various nervous and mental symptoms.
2. A chronic illness caused by lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system that degenerate the myelin sheath (insulating layer surrounding vertebrate peripheral neurons), marked by a lack of muscle coordination, muscle weakness, speech problems, and abnormal neurological sensations which include: numbness, tingling, burning, prickling, and hyperesthesia (increased sensitivity), and visual impairments.

The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues as if they were foreign or not supposed to be there.

The symptoms of multiple scleroses vary, depending on which nerves of the brain and spinal cord lose their protective covers.

otosclerosis (s) (noun), otoscleroses (pl)
1. A disorder of the middle ear that results in progressive deafness: Otosclerosis normally affects both ears and it usually occurs early in adult life.
2. The abnormal formation of new bone in the middle ear that gradually immobilizes the stapes (stirrup bone) and prevents it from vibrating in response to sounds, causing progressive loss of hearing: The deafness caused byotosclerosis may be partially overcome with a hearing aid, but surgery is eventually needed and this involves replacing the stapes bone with a synthetic substitute (stapedectomy).
phlebosclerosis (s) (noun), phleboscleroses (pl)
A fibrous hardening or thickening of the walls of the veins: Phlebosclerosis is a result of collagen or gluey gelatin deposits in the venous walls as a response to some kind of external trauma or venous hypertension.

Also called proliferative endophlebitis, productive phlebitis, venofibrosis, and phlebofibrosis.

sclera (s) (noun), scleras (pl)
The tough, fibrous, outermost layer or covering membrane of the eyeballs: The sclera protects the inner structures of the eyes from injury.

At the front of the eyes, the scleras form transparent, domed structures called the corneas which have curved surfaces that serve to focus light coming into the eyes.

As strong as they are, the scleras can be penetrated by sharp objects.

Disease of the sclera is uncommon, however, inflammation of the scleras can occur, usually with a collagen or connective tissue disease caused by rheumatoid arthritis (inflammation in which the joints of the fingers, wrists, toes, or other parts of the body become painful, swollen, stiff, and, in severe cases, deformed), systemic lupus crythematosus (chronic disease that causes inflammation of connective tissues), periarteritis nodosa (disease of small and medium-sized arteries), scleroderma (a disease that can affect many organs and tissues in the body), dermatomycositis (a sometimes fatal disease in which the muscles and skin become inflamed causing weakness of the muscles and a skin rash), and other less clearly defined physical disorders.

scleradenitis (s) (noun), scleradenitises; scleradenitides (pl)
Inflammation and induration of a gland: Valerie's doctor said that the soft tissue of one of her glands had become extremely firm and hard indicating that she had a condition of scleradenitis.
Sclerosis or a hardening within the nervous system of the brain.
A diffuse, symmetrical scleroderma (thickening and induration of the skin caused by new collagen formation).
scleroadipose (adjective), more scleroadipose, most scleroadipose
Composed of fibrous and fatty tissue: The body organ that Dr. Smith was examining was of a scleroadipose nature, containing oleaginous and stringy matter.
Scleroderma (disease of connective tissue with the formation of scar tissue, or fibrosis, in the skin) of the fingers and toes.
Chronic hardening and shrinking of the connective tissues of the fingers and/or toes.

The skin may be thickened, hard, and rigid, and pigmented patches may occur.