pro-, por-, pur-

(Greek > Latin: a prefix signifying before; forward, forth; for, in favor of; in front of; in place of, on behalf of; according to; as, to place before; to go before or forward, to throw forward)

proxy (s) (noun), proxies (pl)
1. A power of attorney document given by shareholders of a corporation authorizing a specific vote on their behalf at a corporate meeting.
2. The function or power of someone who is authorized to act as the deputy or substitute for another person.
3. Etymology: from about 1440, prokecye, "agency of one who acts instead of another"; contraction of Anglo-French procuracie, from Middle Latin procuratia, "administration"; from Latin procuratio, "care, management" from procurare, "to manage".
purloin (verb), purloins; purloined; purloining
1. To steal or, in other words, to take something that belongs to another person: Roy's neighbor was caught purloining a bottle of wine at the local store.
2. Etymology: from purloinen, "remove, make distant, misappropriated"; borrowed through Anglo-French purloigner, purloiner, "remove" and directly from Old French porloigner, "put off"; from pur-, "forth"; from Latin pro-, "for, forth" + Old French loing, loin, "far"; from Latin longe which is from longus, "long".
Stealing or committing theft.
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To take away wrongfully.
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Committing a theft.
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purloined (adjective)
A reference to taking something dishonestly: "Bruce was using a purloined pen from his company's office to write notes at home."

"Adam had a purloined book from the library in his book case."

purloiner (s) (noun), purloiners (pl)
Someone who takes something that belongs to another person, from a store, etc.: Jillian's sister was accused of being a purloiner of books from the local book store.

A purloiner was caught trying to steal a lamp shade which she used as a hat and pretended not to know what lamp shade the police officer was talking about.

reciprocal (adjective) (not comparable)
1. A reference to something that is mutual or done in return; given or felt by each toward the other; mutual: James and Jerry had reciprocal respect for each other.
2. Descriptive of something given, performed, felt, etc., in return; concerning something given or shown by each of two sides or people to the other: After the German exchange group visited Tamworth, the English students planned on a reciprocal visit the following year.
3. Conveying a corresponding; matching; complementary; equivalent: The members of the fitness studio were able to have reciprocal privileges at other health clubs.
4. In grammar, with reference to a pronoun or verb; expressing mutual relationship or action: "Each other” and “one another” are reciprocal pronouns.
5. Pertaining to something which is inversely related or proportional; opposite: The contrasting, or reciprocal, color of fabric used for the lining was bright red as opposed to the bright blue color of the dress.
6. Etymology: from Latin reciprocus, "turning back the same way, alternating", which stands for reco-procos and is a compound of the adjectives recos, "turning backward", and procos, "turning forward"; therefore, reciprocus originally meant "turning backward and forward".

Reciprocal, when all things are considered, is a compound adjective based on the elements re-, "back, backward" and pro-, "for, forward".

Shared by both sides, mutual agreement.
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reciprocality (s) (noun), reciprocalities (pl)
A relation of mutual dependence or action or influence.
reciprocally (adverb), more reciprocally, most reciprocally
Descriptive of what affects the other and is equally affected by it; interchangeably; mutually.
reciprocalness (s) (noun) (no plural)
The quality or condition of being equally mutual in returning something.
reciprocate (ri SIP ruh kayt") (verb), reciprocates; reciprocated; reciprocating
1. To give, to feel, to do something similar in return for what each one has done to the other one: Monica was treated very nicely by her boyfriend and so she reciprocated by giving him a hug.

Anyone who reciprocates is returning the same kind of treatment that another person has done to him or to her, whether it is good or bad.

2. To interchange; each person or group giving or doing to the other the same thing; to give, to feel, etc., in return: Alice loved her daughter Lucy very much, and this love was certainly reciprocated by Lucy towards her mother as well.
3. Etymology: from Latin reciprocare "to move back" and "forth"; from re-, "backward" + pro, "forward" + -cate, "normally a verb ending".
To mutually interchange by giving and receiving the same thing to each other.
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To return something done or given by repaying it back.
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reciprocating (adjective), more reciprocating, most reciprocating
Pertaining to something that causes or moves backward and forward.
reciprocation (s) (noun), reciprocations (pl)
1. An action or an arrangement that involves two people or groups of people who behave in the same way or agree to help each other and give each other advantages.
2. A returning, usually for something given.
3. A mutual giving and receiving.
4. In prosthodontics, the means by which one part of an appliance is made to counter the effect created by another part.

Prosthodontics refers to a dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing teeth and structures by artificial devices or prostheses.

5. In electronics, a process by which a reciprocal impedance (or network) is derived from a given impedance (or network).
reciprocative (adjective), more reciprocative, most reciprocative
Given or done or owed to each other.
reciprocity (s) (noun), reciprocities (pl)
1. A condition or relationship of a mutual dependence or action or influence: The two friends shared an apartment and the reciprocity of getting along and helping each other in the home proved to be successful for a long time.
2. A cooperative interchange of favors or privileges, especially the exchange of rights or privileges of trade between nations: The two countries did business and had transactions with goods and services with each other and this common reciprocity equally benefited them and existed for many years.
3. An arrangement in personal licensure whereby one jurisdiction accepts another jurisdiction's prior issuance: Both countries agreed on a reciprocity, allowing an individual to practice medicine and not being required to demonstrate again through examination or otherwise, that he or she has met minimum levels of competence required for a license.
4. An arrangement between governments whereby their nationals are entitled to certain stated medical care or other benefits on an agreed basis: Within the European Community there exists a reciprocity whereby the citizens are allowed to cross the boarders between the different countries without having to prove their identity with using their passports, which is a great advantage for everybody!
5. In anthropology, a system in which the exchange of goods is conducted within the groups of a society or community according to a prescribed ritual: Reciprocity is a non-market trading between people in countries or even in the home when gifts are given to each other for Christmas or as birthday presents.
A mutual acion by giving and taking between two people.
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Reciprocity in the news: "Talking tough on trade, Paris seeks 'reciprocity' "

The French agriculture minister Thursday (May 31, 2007) warned that France could use its veto powers to block a global trade deal that did not protect European agricultural interests.

The French minister, Christine Lagarde, said, "The need for reciprocity is imperative. We will not see a breakthrough in global trade talks until we see exact figures from the United States that show reciprocity and balance."

—Compiled from an article titled
"Talking tough on trade, Paris seeks 'reciprocity' " by Dan Bilefsky,
Internatioal Herald Tribune, Fricay, June 1, 2007; page 1.
1. To bring again into material existence; to create or form anew; specifically, in biology to form (a lost limb or organ) afresh; to generate (new individuals).
2. To bring about again; to effect, exhibit, or present anew; to repeat in some fashion.
3. To repeat in a more or less exact copy; to produce a copy of (a work of art, picture, drawing, etc.), now especially, by means of engraving, photography, or similar processes.
4. To create again by a mental effort; to represent clearly to the mind.
1. An audio system that can reproduce and amplify signals to produce sound.
2. That which can produce again; for example, to produce (new individuals of the same kind) by a sexual or asexual process.
3. Something that can be cause something to exist again or to renew (reproduce water from steam).
4. That which can imitate closely (sound-effects can reproduce the sound of thunder).
5. Anyone, or anything, that makes a representation of (as an image or copy) or reproduces a face on canvas.

Related before-word units: ante-; antero-; anti-; pre-.