phalang-, phalango-

(Greek via Latin: bone between two joints of a finger or toe; line of battle; from phalanx, heavy infantry in close order [from Greek antiquity])

The surgical excision (removal) of one or more of the phalanges of the hand or foot.
A quadruped of the genus Phalangista, or of the subfamily Phalangistine, Australian marsupials of arboreal habits, containing numerous genera and species, usually of small size, with thick woolly fur; the typical genera (Australian opossums) have prehensile tails; the flying phalangers (called also flying opossums, flying-squirrels, or petaurists) have non-prehensile tails and a flying-membrane or parachute.
Plural of phalanx.
The distal, or more distant, phalanx (bones) of a digit.
Having the form of a phalanx.
Walking on the phalanges; belonging to the division Phalangigrada, which consists of the camel and llama.
A soldier belonging to a phalanx.
Inflammation of one or more of the phalanges.
A reference to two adjoining phalanges of a finger or toe.
1. A condition in which the eyelashes grow in rows.
2. The growth of eyelashes in more than one row per eyelid; disease of eyelashes when they grow in several rows or turn inward.
1. In anatomy, especially in ancient Greece, a group of soldiers that attacked in close formation, protected by their overlapping shields and projecting spears.
2. A group of people, animals, or objects that are moving or standing closely together.

Phalanx originally referred to the whole row of finger joints, and this was so called because the arrangement suggested a battle array (orderly grouping or force).

It apparently is based on an ancient Greek battle formation of infantry fighting in close ranks; then it became Latin phalanx, or was borrowed directly from Greek phalanx, a line of battle; and then "finger bone" or "toe bone". Now phalanx refers to any one of those finger or toe bones.

In anatomy, the phalanx is a long bone of the digits of the hand and foot, usually with three segments in each digit, except for the thumb and great toe.

The segments are referred to as the proximal, middle, and distal segments; the thumb and great toe have only proximal and distal segments.

Each bone has a base, a body or shaft, and a head. The proximal phalanx is the longest of the three bones.

1. Side-by-side duplication of one or more of the phalanges of a digit.
2. The condition of having more digital phalanges than normal; especially, in cases where polydactyly is absent.
3. The presence of more phalanges in a finger or a toe than is normal.
Congenital (present at birth) end-to-end fusion of contiguous phalanges of a digit.
Ankylosis, or fusion, of bones across the finger or toe joints.
Symphalangus syndactylus
A large black gibbon of Sumatra having the second and third toes which are partially united by a web or the two fingers on each hand are fused together.

Cross references directly, or indirectly, involving the "toes" and "fingers": dactylo-; digit-; hallu-.