-ology, -logy, -ologist, -logist

(Greek: a suffix meaning: to talk, to speak; a branch of knowledge; any science or academic field that ends in -ology which is a variant of -logy; a person who speaks in a certain manner; someone who deals with certain topics or subjects)

The word -ology is a back-formation from the names of certain disciplines. The -logy element basically means "the study of ____". Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the terminal -logy derived from the Greek suffix -λογια (-logia), speaking, from λεγειν (legein), "to speak".

The suffix -ology is considered to be misleading sometimes as when the "o" is actually part of the word stem that receives the -logy ending; such as, bio + logy.

Through the years -ology and -logy have come to mean, "study of" or "science of" and either of these suffixes often utilize the form of -ologist, "one who (whatever the preceding element refers to)".

The examples shown in this unit represent just a small fraction of the many words that exist in various dictionaries.

historiology (s) (noun), historiologies (pl)
1. The knowledge or study of events from the past.
2. A discourse or science of chronological records or situations that occurred in the past.
hodology (s) (noun), hodologies (pl)
1. The scientific study of tracts or pathways in the central nervous system.
2. The study of pathways: in brain physiology, it is the study of the interconnections of brain cells; in philosophy, it is the study of interconnected ideas; in geography, it is the study of paths.
hologyny (s) (noun), hologynies (pl)
Characteristics that are manifested by or existing only in females.
homeopathy (s) (noun), homeopathies (pl)
A system of medical treatment based on the use of small quantities of remedies that, in massive doses, produce effects similar to those of the disease being treated.

Homeopathy, historical background

Homeopathy was invented by the German physician Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was both refined and popularized by the American physician James Tyler Kent.

Homeopathy is based on the theory that each naturally occurring element, plant, and mineral compound will, when ingested or applied, result in certain symptoms. Hahnemann believed that, by diluting these substances in a standardized manner, one could reach the true essence of that substance. Hahnemann described this process of dilution as "potentizing" (German: "potenziert") the substance. These diluted amounts could then be used to treat the very symptoms they were known to produce.

Hahnemann and his students approached their treatments in a holistic way, meaning that the whole of the body and spirit is dealt with, not just the localised disease. Hahnemann himself spent extended periods of time with his patients, asking them questions that dealt not only with their particular symptoms or illness, but also with the details of their daily lives.

It is also suggested that the gentle approach of homeopathy was a reaction to the violent forms of medicine of the day, which included techniques such as bleeding.

homology (hoh MOL uh jee)
1. Similar characteristics in two animals that are a product of descent from a common ancestor rather than a product of a similar environment.
2. The correspondence of a part or organ of one animal with a similar part or organ of another one, determined by agreement in derivation and development from a like primitive origin, as the foreleg of a quadruped, the wing of a bird, and the pectoral fin of a fish.
3. In chemistry, a similarity in compounds having the same fundamental structure but differing in constituents by a regular succession of changes; such as, the alcohols.
1. Clinical endocrinology or the study of hormones, the endocrine system, and their role in the physiology of the body.
2. A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system.
horologist (s) (noun), horologists (pl)
Someone who studies the science of measuring time: Not only did Tom take courses about how clocks worked, but he also became an excellent horologist and was very skilled in making clocks, watches, and even sundials.
horology (s) (noun), horologies (pl)
1. The scientific subject area of how time is measured: Because Timothy was very interested in old watches, and had a collection of them, he bought a book on horology to find out more about years, months, days, hours, minutes, etc.
2. The art of making timekeeping instruments, such as clocks and sundials: Since she was a little girl, Tina was fascinated by old pocket watches and so she decided to study horology and learn more about how time could be determined.
The science of measuring time or the skills of constructing various kinds of time-measuring devices.
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human ethology
The study of human behavior, especially aggressive and submissive behavior in social contexts.
1. The study of life, or living organisms, in aquatic habitats.
2. The study of live forms in bodies of water; such as, lakes or estuaries.
The study and therapeutic utilization of waterfront climates.
hydrogeology (s) (noun), hydrogeologies (pl)
The science dealing with the occurrence and distribution of underground water; hydrology; geohydrology: Hydrogeology studies the movement of subsurface water through rocks and the effect of moving water on rocks, including their erosion.

Hydrogeology is also concerned with the physical, chemical, and biological features of groundwater.

1. Someone who is skilled in hydrology.
2. A practitioner of hydrology who works within the fields of either earth or environmental science, or civil and environmental engineering.
1. The scientific study of the properties, distribution, and effects of water on the earth's surface, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere.
2. The body of medical knowledge and practice concerned with the therapeutic use of bathing and water therapy.
3. The sum of knowledge regarding water and its uses.
4. The study of the characteristics and occurences of water, and of the hydrologic cycle.

Research in the physical phenomena associated with the waters of the earth; such as, evaporation, groundwater storage and flow, snow melting and precipitation. Such studies include the circulation, properties and distribution of water; especially, water in the earth's atmosphere, in the soil and rocks, and on the earth's surface.

1. The study of the occurrences, movements, and change of states of atmospheric water.
2. Research in the effect of atmospheric phenomena on hydrologic systems; such as, irrigation systems, hydroelectric power plants, flood control systems, etc.
Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "talk, speak, speech; words, language; tongue, etc.": cit-; clam-; dic-; fa-; -farious; glosso-; glotto-; lalo-; linguo-; locu-; logo-; loqu-; mythico-; ora-; -phasia; -phemia; phon-; phras-; Quotes: Language,Part 1; Quotes: Language, Part 2; Quotes: Language, Part 3; serm-; tongue; voc-.