-ology, -logy, -ologist, -logist
(Greek: a suffix meaning: to talk, to speak; a branch of knowledge; any science or academic field that ends in -ology which is a variant of -logy; a person who speaks in a certain manner; someone who deals with certain topics or subjects)
The word -ology is a back-formation from the names of certain disciplines. The -logy element basically means "the study of ____". Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the terminal -logy derived from the Greek suffix -λογια (-logia), speaking, from λεγειν (legein), "to speak".
The suffix -ology is considered to be misleading sometimes as when the "o" is actually part of the word stem that receives the -logy ending; such as, bio + logy.
Through the years -ology and -logy have come to mean, "study of" or "science of" and either of these suffixes often utilize the form of -ologist, "one who (whatever the preceding element refers to)".
The examples shown in this unit represent just a small fraction of the many words that exist in various dictionaries.
2. Research in the study of aging as a biological, sociological, and psychological process; geriatric medicine: The branch of gerontology in medicine interested Ralph and he decided to do more investigating in this area since his grandparents were already up in their 90s.
3. The scientific study of the process and problems of aging and of age-related diseases of humans: Nancy thought that she could specialize in gerontology knowing that the population where she lived was getting older and older and requiring special medical attention.
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Aging, a potential crisis in China
- The proportion of elderly people is growing faster in China than in any major country, with the number of retirees set to double between 2005 and 2015, when it will reach 200 million.
- By mid-century, 430 million people (about a third of the population) will be retirees.
- That increase will place enormous demands on the country's finances and could threaten the underpinnings of the Chinese economy, which has thrived for decades on the cheap labor of hundreds of millions of young, uneducated workers from the countryside.
- Changes in China's population structure are taking place hand in hand with changes in the structure of the family.
- The country's so-called one-child policy, which began in 1980, means that beginning with the current gene5ration of young adults, couples will face the stark task of caring for four parents through old age.
- In addition, the ratio of workers to retired people will decline from about six to one now to about two to one by 2040.
- Of course, raising the retirement age from the current 50 to 55 for women and 55 to 60 for men to bring them more in line with international norms would ease a substantial amount of pressure on the pension system.
- Raising the retirement ages presents another set of problems for the government, Chinese social security experts say.
- Last year, for example, 4.13 million young Chinese graduated from universities, and fully 30 percent of them are still unemployed.
- Unemployment is high among non-university graduates, as well. Prolonging employment for older workers would make this predicament worse, possibly with volatile consequences.
- Meanwhile, breaking a lifelong promise and abruptly extending the retirement age would create another large class of malcontents.
- The bind that China finds itself in takes form in an often-posed question: Can the country grow rich before it grows old? Increasingly, experts in China say the answer, which also has huge implication for the global economy, appears doubtful.
- For all of the experts' talk of a looming crisis, many Chinese seem only dimly aware of the country's predicament and many middle-aged people say they have only belatedly begun to prepare themselves for retirement.
2. Anyone who attributes the phenomena of the drift, in geology, to glaciers.
2. The definitions and explanations of terms; as seen in a glossary.
3. The science of language; comparative philology; linguistics.
2. The determination of how long ago different languages evolved from a common source language.
The branch of lexicostatistics that studies the rate of the replacement of vocabulary and attempts to determine what percentage of basic vocabulary two presently distinct, but related languages share, using the information that is obtained to estimate how long ago they ceased being a single language.
2. The science of the definitions and explanations of terms.
3. The study of the tongue and the conditions, or diseases, affecting it.
2. A field of dental or medical study which deals with the entire chewing apparatus, including its anatomic, histological, morphological, physiologic, and pathological characteristics.
Diagnostic, therapeutic, and any necessary rehabilitative procedures can be determined by such research results.
2. The study of animals in the absence of contaminating microorganisms; that is, of “germ-free” animals.