The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently delimited [established boundaries] Southern Ocean).
The Northwest Passage (U.S. and Canada) and Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.
The polar climate is characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow.
The world's second-largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean).
The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are important strategic access waterways.
The decision by the International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to delimit a fifth world ocean, the Southern Ocean, removed the portion of the Atlantic Ocean south of 60 degrees south latitude.
The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
Other economic activities include the exploitation of natural resources; such as, fishing, dredging of aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).
bio-oceanography (s) (noun)
, bio-oceanographies (pl)
The study of the flora (plants) and fauna (animals) of oceans in relation to their marine environments.
The third largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the Southern Ocean and Arctic Ocean).
Four critically important access waterways are the Suez Canal (Egypt), Bab el Mandeb (Djibouti-Yemen), Strait of Hormuz (Iran-Oman), and Strait of Malacca (Indonesia-Malaysia).
The decision by the International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to delimit a fifth ocean, the Southern Ocean, removed the portion of the Indian Ocean south of 60 degrees south latitude.
The Indian Ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninetyeast Ridge.
1. A large expanse of salt water; especially, any of the earth's five main such areas: the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic oceans.
The oceans occupy huge regions of the earth's surface, and their boundaries are usually established by continental land masses and ridges in the ocean floor.
2. The entire body of salt water that covers more than 70 percent of the earth's surface.
3. A vast amount or immense expanse of something or an apparently unlimited space or quantity: "As we drove back home, we saw an ocean of corn fields."
A collective term for any form of energy that is extracted from the ocean, including thermal energy from the difference between warmer surface waters and cooler deep waters, or mechanical energy from tides, waves, and currents.
Specialized engineering which deals with the applications of design, construction, and maintenance principles and techniques to an ocean environment.
The process of seeding waters of the open ocean with iron, or other nutrients, with the purpose of increasing phytoplankton growth so as to increase the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into ocean waters.
The various processes; such as, winds, currents, and surface waves; operating in the ocean to equalize the distribution of heat, salt, and various chemicals (including pollutants) that enter ocean waters at various rates and in different locations.
The rate of ocean mixing affects the extent to which carbon dioxide is exchanged between the atmosphere and the oceans.
ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)
Any of various techniques for extracting energy from the vertical temperature difference in the oceans.
In principle, ocean thermal energy conversion can be used to generate electricity, desalinate water, support deep-water mariculture, and provide refrigeration and air-conditioning.
ocean thermal gradient (OTG)
The temperature difference between warmer surface waters of the ocean and colder deep waters, with deeper water likely to be 20-50 degrees Fahrenheit colder.
In principle, this temperature gradient can be utilized with various types of ocean thermal energy conversion systems.
The plural form of oceanarium, or large saltwater aquaria (aquariums) ocean habitats with marine animals, especially large fish; such as, sharks and other marine life.
oceanarium (s) (noun)
; oceanaria, oceanariums (pl)
A large saltwater aquarium for the display and observation of fish and other marine life: "The local oceanarium had a large selection of fish as well as other ocean creatures and plants."
oceanaut (s) (noun)
, oceanauts (pl)
1. An underwater swimmer in an ocean who uses an underwater breathing device.
2. A skilled worker who can live in underwater installations and participate in scientific researches.
The islands of the southern, western, and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.
The term is sometimes extended to encompass Australia, New Zealand, and the Malay Archipelago.
Additional information at "Oceanic Sounds in a Realm of Silence".
Inter-related cross references, directly or indirectly, involving the "sea" and the "ocean" bodies of water:
batho-, bathy- (depth);
bentho- (deep, depth);
halio-, halo- (salt or "the sea");
mare, mari- (sea);
necto-, nekto- (swimming);
pelago- (sea, ocean);
thalasso- (sea, ocean).
Cross references of word families that are related directly, or indirectly, to: "river, stream":