nephr-, nephro-, nephri-, -nephric
(Greek: nephros; kidney, kidneys)
Epinephrine is a substance produced by the medulla (inside) of the adrenal gland.
The name epinephrine was coined in 1898 by the American pharmacologist and physiologic chemist (biochemist) John Jacob Abel who isolated it from the adrenal gland which is located above (epi-) the kidney (Greek nephros).
Epinephrine causes increased rapidness of the heart beat, strengthens the force of the heart's contraction, opens up the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs, and has numerous other effects.
2. The second type of excretory organ to develop in the vertebrate embryo.
It consists of a series of twisting tubules which arise from the mephrogenic cord caudal to the pronephros and that at one end from the glomerulus and at the other connect with the excretory mesonephric duct.
The organ is the permanent kidney in lower animals, but in human and various other mammals it is functional only during early embryonic development and is later replaced by the metanephros, although the duct system is retained and incorporated into the male reproductive system.
This surgery is done under general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free) while the surgeon makes a cut in the abdomen or in the side of the abdomen (flank area). A rib may need to be removed to perform the procedure.
The ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) and the blood vessels are cut away from the kidney and the kidney is removed. The cut is then closed.
Kidney removal may be done as open surgery, which involves a large cut in the side of the abdomen. Some patients may have laparoscopic surgery, which is less invasive and involves three or four small cuts, usually no more than an inch each, in the abdominal and flank areas.