mono-, mon-

(Greek: one, alone, single; a number used as a prefix)

monopolar electrocautery, unipolar electrocautery
An electrocautery (electrosurgery) in which an electric current is applied through a hand-held active electrode and travels back to the generator through an inactive electrode attached to the patient (the grounding pad), so that the patient is part of the electrical circuit.
monopolar needle electrode
A needle electrode consisting of a single piece of stainless steel wire coated with insulating material except at the tips.

It must be accompanied by another electrode as a reference.

monopolar stimulating electrode
A stimulating electrode which has the two terminals attached separately and relatively far apart.
monopole, monopolist
Someone who monopolizes or possesses a monopoly; one who favors the practice of monopoly.
Monopolia dicitur, cum unus solus aliquod genus mercature universum emit, pretium ad suum libitum statuens. (a legal statement in Latin)
Translation: "It is said to be a monopoly when one person alone buys up the whole of one kind of commodity, fixing a price at his own pleasure."
The sole power, right, or privilege of sale; monopoly.

A legal term.

monopolize (verb), monopolizes; monopolized; monopolizing
1. To have complete control of an industry or service and prevent other companies or people from participating or competing in it: The firm monopolized the import of bananas so that other smaller firms didn't have a chance to sell them at all!
2. By extension, to demand or take all of something; such as, someone's time, attention, or affection: Little Jimmy loved swinging in the garden and didn't let his sister swing at all and therefore he monopolised the swing completely!
To have exclusive dominance of.
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monopoly (s) (noun), monopolies (nouns)
1. A situation in which one company controls an industry or is the only provider of a product or service: "A monopoly is an extreme situation that is used in capitalism and by many governments because most people believe that, with few exceptions, the system just doesn't work when there is only one provider of a product or service because there is no incentive to improve it so it will meet the demands of consumers."

By definition, monopoly is characterized by an absence of competition; which sometimes results in high prices and inferior products."

2. A product or service whose supply is controlled by only one company and which has an exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices: "Several governments attempt to prevent commercial monopolies from existing through the use of antitrust laws.
3. In law, a legal right to the exclusive control of an industry or service, as granted by a government: "A situation in which a single company or group owns all or nearly all of the market for a given type of product or service."

"Public monopolies are set up by governments to provide essential services; such as, water, electricity, police services, garbage collecting, etc.; so, in such cases, a monopoly is probably more effcient than an oligopoly or multiopoly would be."

4. A law or a situation in which one supplier or producer controls over one third of a market: "Naturally, there are gray areas which take, for example, the granting of patents on new inventions. These provide a monopoly on a product for a set period of time."

"The reasoning behind patents is to give innovators some time to recoup what are often large research and development costs. In theory, they are a way of using monopolies to promote innovation."

monopoly; polypoly, polyopoly
monopoly (muh NAHP uh lee) (noun)
1. Exclusive possession or ownership of something: The sugar mogul had a monopoly on the sugar import-export business in our city.
2. When capitalized, a board game developed in the 1930s involving money, purchase of property, etc.: The family decided to play Monopoly after dinner.
polypoly, polyopoly (PAHL ee PAHL ee, pahl ee AH pahl ee) (noun)
A market situation where there are large numbers of small buyers and small sellers, none of which can influence prices or a market situation in which there are no large sellers but many small ones: Patrick was just one member of the polypoly, or polyopoly, among many other businessmen who had no affect on the costs of his products beyond his sales outlet.

One advantage of a polypoly, or polyopoly, market situation is the limited possibility of a monopoly developing among the buyers or sellers.

monopsony (s), monopsonies (pl) (noun forms)
1. A situation in which a particular type of product or service is only being bought or used by one customer: "An example of pure monopsony is a firm that is the only buyer of workers in an isolated town where the company would be able to pay lower wages to its employees than it would if other firms were present."
2. A market situation in which the products or services of several sellers is sought by just one buyer.
3. A market in which goods or services are offered by several sellers but there is only one buyer.
4. A condition in which there is only one buyer for the product of a large number of sellers.
5. Etymology: from Ancient Greek ????? (monos), "single" + ?????? (opsonia), "purchase".
monopsychism (s) (noun), monopsychisms (pl)
The theory, or theories, that all souls (or the souls of all mankind) are one: "There is a unity of souls of all humans according to this concept of monopsychism."
monopsychosis (s) (noun), monopsychoses (pl)
1. Partial insanity, in which a person's morbid mental state is restricted to one subject, the patient being of sound judgment and having appropriate behaviors regarding all other subjects.
2. An impulsive single act without an apparent motive.
A fetus with monopodial symmelia, a developmental anomaly characterized by an apparent fusion of two feet so they appear to be one foot.
monorchid, monorchidism, monorchidic
Having only one testicle or apparently having only one while the other one is undescended.