mandibulo-, mandibul-, mandibuli-; manduc-, manduca-

(Latin: jaw, lower jaw; chew; from mandere, "to chew")

mandible (s) (noun), mandibles (pl)
1. The lower jaw of a vertebrate animal which is hinged to open and close the mouth and it is the only movable bone of the skull.
2. Either the upper or lower part of the beak in birds.
3. Any of various mouth organs of invertebrates (no backbones or spinal columns) used for seizing and biting food; especially, either of a pair of such organs in insects and other arthropods (creatures that have jointed legs, bodies divided into several parts, and their skeletons on the outside).
4. Etymology: "jaw, jawbone" from Late Latin mandibula, "jaw" from Latin mandere, "to chew".

Mandible is a transliteration of the Latin mandibula, "the lower jaw". The word comes from the Latin verb mandere, "to chew"; the anatomists used maxilla for both the upper and the lower jaws, and only much later did the "inferior maxilla" become the "mandible".

Medical Meanings, A Glossary of Word Origins; William S. Haubrich, MD;
American College of Physicians; Philadelphia, 2003, page 140.

Mandible, "jaw"; especially, the lower jaw, 1392, borrowed from Old French mandible, and directly from Late Latin mandibula, from Latin mandere, "to chew", cognate with Greek mathyiai, "jaws".

The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology; Robert K. Barnhart, Editor;
The H.W. Wilson Company; Bronxvlle, New York; 1988; page 628.
mandibula (s) (noun), mandibulae (pl)
The large, arched, movable bone of the lower part of the face, consisting of a curved horizontal part on each side, that is fused in the midline at the symphysis menti (the middle connection of the two bones of the lower jaw; also known as, the projection of the chin).

Its functions include the protection of the tongue and it is involved in speech, biting, and the grinding of food in a person's mouth so it will become soft enough to swallow.

The mandibula has also been referred to as the:

  • mandible
  • lower jaw
  • inferior jaw
  • jaw bone
  • submaxilla
  • inferior maxilla
  • lower jaw bone
  • inferior maxillary bone
mandibular (adjective) (no comparisons)
Referring to the lower jaw.
mandibulary (adjective) (no comparisons)
Relating to a lower jaw.
mandibulate (man DIB yuh lit)
A descriptive term that indicates the presence of mandibles; a pair of mouthparts in insects and other arthropods that are usually used for biting and crushing food; including, water fleas, fairy shrimp, millipedes, and centipedes.
mandibulectomy (noun), mandibulectomies (pl)
The excision or cutting out of the lower jaw by means of a medical operation.

Mandibulectomies can be either marginal, in which only the bone, teeth, and adjacent soft tissues are resected and the mandible's continuity is maintained; or segmental, where a complete segment of the mandible is removed.

mandibuliform (s) (noun), mandibuliforms (pl)
The shape or structure of a jaw; especially, the maxillae of insects when they are hard and adapted for biting.
mandibulofacial (adjective) (no comparisons)
A reference to the mandible and the facial bones.
mandibulohyoid (adjective), more mandibulohyoid, most mandibulohyoid
A reference to, or pertaining to, both the lower jaw and the hyoid arch, or situated between them, which is shaped like a U, or like the Greek letter upsilon; specifically, designating a bone or group of bones supporting the tongue.
mandibulomaxillary (adjective) (no comparisons)
Referring to the two parts of an insect’s mouth that it uses for biting and the mouth parts of an arthropod.

An arthropod is an invertebrate (no back bone) that has jointed limbs and a segmented body with an exoskeleton or outer skeleton made of a tough semitransparent horny substance; such as, with insects.

mandibulopharyngeal (adjective) (no comparisons)
Relating to the mandible and the pharynx; a cavity at the back of the mouth.

The pharynx is cone shaped and is lined with mucous membrane and it opens into the oesophagus (esophagus) at the lower end.

manducable (adjective), more manducable, most manducable
manducate (MAN doo kayt") (verb), manducates; manducated; manducating
1. To chew or to grind food with the teeth: Animals; such as, horses and cows manducate or consume hay, grains, and grass when they are eating.

People also manducate when they are satisfying their appetites during meals or snacks.

2. Etymology: from Latin manducare, "to chew".
manducation (s) (noun), manducations (pl)
manducatory (adjective), more manducatory, most manducatory