You searched for: “words
Quotes: Word, Words, Part 1
The medium of exchange for thoughts and ideas between people: word quotes.
This entry is located in the following unit: Quotes: Quotations Units (page 7)
Quotes: Word, Words, Part 2
The medium of exchange for thoughts and ideas between people: word quotes.
This entry is located in the following unit: Quotes: Quotations Units (page 8)
word, words
1. A unit of language, consisting of one or more spoken sounds or their written representation, that functions as a principal carrier of meaning. Words are composed of one or more morphemes and are either the smallest units susceptible of independent use or consist of two or three such units combined under certain linking conditions. Words are usually separated by spaces in writing, and are distinguished phonologically, as by accent, in many languages.
2. Speech or talk: to express one's emotion in words.
This entry is located in the following units: Quotes: Word, Words, Part 1 (page 1) Quotes: Word, Words, Part 2 (page 1)
More possibly related word entries
Units related to: “words
(Greek: write, writing, something written, a written record, a recording; letters; words; later, a small weight, a unit of mass in the metric system)
(-cede, -ceed, and -sede)
(Robert Service and E.B. de Vito, two logophiles, express their fondness for words)
(presentations of living conceptions; the medium of exchange for thoughts and ideas between people)
(presentations of living conceptions; the medium of exchange for thoughts and ideas between people)
(Latin: word, words)
(confusion exists about usage of "a" and "an" in front of other words)
(history of how, when, and why hundreds of words have entered the English language)
(From Latin: "to, toward, a direction toward, an addition to, near, at"; and changes to: "ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at-" and ad- is also combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t.)
(an etymological approach to learning more about English words; especially, those from Latin and Greek origins)
(index of links to a vast number of words with illustrations)
(a dog with a special talent for human words)
(a different kind of vocabulary lexicon that emphasizes English words primarily from Latin and Greek origins)
(the Sun god who brings life-giving heat and light to Earth)
(a suffix which forms nouns that refer to people who regularly engage in some activity, or who are characterized in a certain way, as indicated by the stem or root of the word; originally, which appeared in Middle English in words from Old French where it expressed an intensive degree or with a pejorative or disparaging application)
(Latin: lime, calcium; heel, bone of the tarsus; to tread; derived from calx, calcis, "limestone, lime, pebble"; from Greek words halix and psephos, "small stone, pebble".)
(This suffix has no etymological source; it is just a part of other words.)
(completed units of words that contain word entries that have both enhanced definitions and appropriate usages in context sentences while units of compositions presents additional information about specific words or topics)
(Dictionaries are often more confusing than they are at clearly defining the meanings of words.)
(lists of "A" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "B" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "C" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "D" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "E" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "F" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "G" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "H" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "I" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "J" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "K" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "L" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "M" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "N" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "O" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "P" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "Q" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "R" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "S" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "T" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "U" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "V" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "W" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "X" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "Y" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(lists of "Z" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)
(A list of words with the same spellings that can cause confusion.)
(lists of homonyms, homophones, homographs, and other words that cause confusions)
(Just two of many lexicons that need to clarify all of the word contents for a better understanding instead of using another form of one of the words that is being defined to explain the other entries or simply not providing any information about the other words besides the primary entry.)
(enjoying words with special points of view, sometimes humorous, and which are not found in a "regular" dictionary)
(Gaia, Earth goddess of the ancient Greeks, she was called Gaea, Terra Mater, "Earth Mother" by the Romans; third planet from the sun)
(bibliographic resources and references for electricity and electronic words)
(new words for new inventions)
(information about English words and communication)
(an accurate count is impossible)
(Greek: within, inside, inner; used as a prefix [used in many words related to anatomy and biology])
(words which originated from the names of people, things, and places)
(learn more about where words came from and who their family members are)
(learning etymologies can multiply your vocabulary easier than by learning lists of words)
(If the origins of words are not known, then much of our language will not be as easily understood nor appreciated!)
(Latin: a prefix occurring in words of Latin origin used in the senses: out, out of, from; upward; completely, entirely; to remove from, deprive of; without; former [said of previous holders of office or dignity])
(Anglo Saxon or Teutonic: in Old English times, eye was eage, which is related to a whole range of words for "eye" in other European languages; including, Greek ophthalmos and Latin oculus [with all of its subsequent derivatives])
(Latin: ward off, to ward off, strike, keep off, guard, protect; from fendere [found only in compounded words])
(the first newsletter of a series that was formerly presented as separate publications)
(a connection of this and fourteen other Focusing on Words Newsletters are available for your learning opportunities by clicking on the link under the banner)
(Latin: helmet, helmet shaped, to cover with a helmet; cap; used primarily in zoology and botany with phases of sense development that seem to have been: weasel, weasel's skin or hide, leather, and then a helmet made of leather; by extension, it also means "cat, cats" in some words)
(Greek: Hermes, the son of Zeus and Maia, the god of commerce and messenger of the gods in Greek mythology; identified by the Romans as Mercury; however, some of the words in this unit come from Hermes tris megistos, Hermes Trismegistus, literally, "Hermes, Thrice the Greatest" referring to the Egyptian god Thoth, who was identified with the Greek god Hermes, of science and arts)
(confusion that sometimes exists because of the spellings and similar sounds of words)
(Latin: in, into, within, inside, on, toward [il-, ir-, im-], in, into, etc.: involve, incur, invade; also, used intensively, as in the words inflame and inflammable, or without perceptible force.)
(Old English, Middle English: in, into; within; toward; a prefix used in front of English words, not Latin or Greek elements; as in the words, indoors and inland)
(Greek > Latin: a suffix that is used to form hundreds of words that mean: similar to, resembling, like, characterized by, or of the nature of)
(contronyms or words which have definitions that are self-antonyms; that is, which have two meanings that are the opposites of each other)
(Jupiter, Iuppiter, Juppiter, or Jove, King of the Roman gods; fifth planet from the sun)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(Latin words directly incorporated into English which are essentially without changes from their original spelling)
(Latin: read, readable [to choose words; to gather, to collect; to pick out; to read, to recite])
(Greek: word or words, vocabulary; a saying, a phrase; speaking, speech)
(Greek elements that create words that mean "lizard")
(Diana, or Luna, Roman goddess of the Moon, animals, and hunting)
(Latin: mantellum, cloak, veil; by way of Middle English, from Old English mentel and from Old French mantel; resulting in English words about: mantle, mantel, and manteau)
(Mars [Greek: Ares], Roman god of war; fourth planet from the sun)
(a man who dealt with the origins of words and their developments)
(messenger of the Roman gods; first planet from the sun)
(a collection of misheard words and sentences)
(other languages expressing the words mosquito, mosquitoes as shown in Latinized-text format)
(Neptune, Roman god of the sea; eighth planet from the sun)
(Focusing on Words Newsletters previously published)
(Latin: yawning, the act of yawning; to gape [see the definitions for these words below])
(a variety of palindrome words, both historical and modern)
(Latin: foot, feet; people often see this ped element in other words. When people refer to "pedal extremities", they mean "feet". When anyone pushes the pedals of a bicycle, it is done with the feet. A pedestrian must use the feet for walking. A quadruped has four feet while a centipede has "100 feet"; or a large number of them because it may be impossible to count all of them.)
(Latin: hang, hanging; weigh, weighing; to cause to hang down; related to words in this pond- unit.)
(avoid redundancies or excessive repetitiousness by not using unnecessary repetitions and superfluous words or more word usages than is needed, desired, or required)
(Pluto, Roman god of wealth, ruled the dark underworld of myth; ninth planet from the sun)
(linguistic terms for words with two or more meanings; usually, multiple meanings of a word or words)
(Latin: weight, weigh; heavy; to consider, to think about; closely related to this pend-, "hang, weigh, to hand down" unit of words)
(examples of portmanteau combinations or blended words)
(confusions explained and clarified with mnemonic tools for remembering the two words)
(deeds not words; action speaks louder)
(EU, Languages Stretch the Limits; as European Union seeks a stronger voice, words get in the way)
(Latin words and phrases worth knowing)
(a form of word humor when people fiddle with words and laugh at the resultant loony tunes: Considered by some to be the lowest form of humus, earthy wit that we all dig and often respond to with groans and moans)
(a form of word humor when people fiddle with words and laugh at the resultant loony tunes; considered by some to be the lowest form of humus, earthy wit, that we all dig and often respond to with groans and moans)
(a pleasure that comes with an abundance of words)
(words which identify Roman terms referring to people and other topics; especially, those appearing in Those about to Die)
(Saturn, Roman god of the harvest and a planet; sixth planet from the sun)
(Latin: a suffix found at the end of some words that make certain verbs become nouns.)
(words with Latin and Greek origins and from other sources)
(learning English words from Latin and Greek elements)
(learn how to avoid being a malapropist)
(Greek > Latin: treasure, treasury, storehouse, chest; a treasury of words)
(Latin: to assign, to allot, to bestow, to give, to grant; from tribe, to give out among the tribes was tribuere which is the source of many of the words located in this unit)
(Uranus with Seventeen Sattelites; seventh planet from the sun)
(Venus, Roman goddess; Aphrodite, Greek goddess; second planet from the sun)
(Latin: videre, "to see"; plus words with other related meanings: to notice, noticing, noticed; observe, observing, observed; look, looking, looked; perceive, perceiving, perceived, perception; see, seeing, saw, seen, sight; view, viewing, viewed; manifest, manifesting, manifested; reveal, revealing, revealed, revelelation)
(seeing English words in three vocabulary quiz types from different perspectives for a greater enhancement of English-word skills)
(English-Vocabulary Words from Latin and Greek Units Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes that Every Advanced-English Speaker and Reader Should Know)
(Greek: wood; the first element of various scientific and technical words that refer to wood)
Word Entries containing the term: “words
Ancestors or Greek origins for the English words referring to child or boy

Any time a student refers to a teacher as a pedagogue he or she is not suggesting that the teacher has feet which are a foot-and-a-half (sesquipedalian) long.

The Greek ped used in English is a shortened form of the Greek pais (paid-), which means a "child"; usually a "boy", because in old Grecian times, boys were considered "more important" than girls.

Actually, pedagogue means "a child's guide" or "guiding a child". In ancient Athens, the pedagogue was a slave who led his master's children (boys) to school or provided private tutoring. In the U.S., the equivalent of "guiding a child" is now "home schooling". In time, the word became known as a "teacher".

This Greek ped is used primarily in technical terms; such as pedagogics, which refers to the "science of teaching". There is more information about pedoagogue, pedagog on this page.

Another derivative from the Greek ped is a word meaning "education" or the results of "education"; such as, "knowledge" or "learning". The Greek element pedia is found in other Greek words; such as, cyclopedia and encyclopedia, "circles of knowledge".

This entry is located in the following unit: pedo-, paedo-, ped-, paed-, paido-, paid- (page 1)
Ancestors or Latin origins of words in English (carpet, scarce, excerpt):
It appears to be impossible that such far-flung words as carpet, scarce, and excerpt all come from the same Latin verb; however, they do, and their histories show the astonishing and unpredictable way some words have developed.

The word carpet, for example, ultimately derives from the Latin carpo, which meant to "pluck" or to "card" wool, and it is believed that the first carpets were of wooly cloth made of unravelled threads.

Then there is the term scarce, which English inherited from the French escars, "scanty", originally from the Latin ex, "out", and carpo, "pluck". It's like "plucking" from the cookie jar until the cookies become "scanty" and scarce.

Another related word is excerpt, from Latin excerptus (ex, "out" and carpo, "pluck") which refers to something that has been "plucked out" of its context.

The result is that the idea of "plucking" streams through the three widely divergent words just as a scarce thread of color can be woven through the carpet with which this excerpt started.

These basic words and their related forms can be seen in this carpo-, carp- (cerp-) unit of "to pluck, to pick out, to gather, to select" words.

This entry is located in the following unit: carpo-, carp- (cerp-) + (page 1)
April 24, 2007: Words of historical and current interest
As seen in the International Herald Tribune:

French candidates scramble for center: Sarkozy and Royal woo Bayrou voters

Takeover to create a banking behemoth: ABN AMRO accepts offer from Barclays valued at 67 billion euro

Boris Yeltsin, a flawed hero, dies; Russia's democratic father was a praised, and reviled, figure

Alpine village will break hundred years of solitude: Anticipation and dread for Austrian tunnel

From chaos, Wikipedia shapes a breaking story

U.S. Envoy to Germany joins fray over energy

Europe approves tightening of sanctions against Iran

Charges of fraud abound as ruling party wins in Nigeria

Classes resume as Virginia campus fights to regain balance

Romanian lawmakers set date for impeachment vote

Boris Yeltsin's bequest

Bagging eternal plastics

Unintended consequences

The elusive man who May have invented jazz

American talent feted in London: Energy of young New York designers goes on display

Confusing Words: Group A
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "a".

If you want your child to achieve success with his studies in college, look to his vocabulary.

—W.D. Templeman

Our efforts may represent just a few drops of vocabulary-rain in the Sahara Desert of ignorance, but who can predict what will blossom with word knowledge that can equip a person with the light of understanding!

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group B
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "b".

Words play an enormous part in our lives and are therefore deserving of the closest study.

—Aldous Huxley

Put some more words into your life, words which are far better read than dead.

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group C
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "c".

Poverty in words is a serious handicap. Through inadequate vocabulary, authority is lost. The reader or listener loses faith in the communicator's right to treat the subject.

—Joseph G. Brin

Avoid instant information overload and take time out for the accumulation of knowledge and the development of understanding, because while knowledge is orderly and growing by gradual additions, information is often random and miscellaneous.

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group D
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "d".

Size of vocabulary and number of ideas are intimately related. A mastery of a large number of words . . . can lead to a greater range of thought.

—Joseph G. Brin

Everyday we continue to accumulate a dead past and can look forward to an unborn future; however, we still must look to the past for our future success. We can not ignore the past because we wouldn't have a present nor a future without it!

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group E
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "e".

You will never find time for anything. If you want time, you must make it.

—Charles Buxton

In a competitive world where we're bombarded by information every day, learning has become more important now than ever before.

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group F
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "f".

The purpose of all higher education is to make people aware of what was and what is; to incite them to probe into what may be. It seeks to teach them to understand, to evaluate, to communicate.

—Otto Kleppner

This word site offers you an opportunity to make your vocabulary "sizzle" instead of "fizzle".

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group G
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "g".

The English language is rapidly spreading and bids fair to become the general language of the human race.

—John Lubbock (1803-1865)

Well, John Lubbock certainly provided us with a valid prediction, didn't he?

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group H
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "h".

A head is something that is hair today and gone tomorrow.

—Anonymous

Success is not determined by being the best, but in doing our best; and we should remember that the first step in failing starts when we stop trying to achieve our goals.

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group I
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "i".

Words, like eyeglasses, blur everything that they do not make clearer.

—Joseph Joubert (1754-1824), French essayist and moralist

Quality is never an accident! It's always the result of intelligent effort and persistence. We must have the will to produce something which is superior.

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group J
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "j".

Words are tools which automatically carve concepts out of experience.

—Julian Sorrell Huxley

A knowledge of our classical roots is essential for a proper understanding of the construction of thousands of English words.

Such knowledge may be obtained by studying classical Latin and/or Greek directly, or by learning the etymological histories of words that are derived from these languages as shown in the various family units which are available in this Words for a Modern Age index.

—Sr. Scribe
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group K
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "k".

The past, the present, and the future are really one; they are today.

—Anonymous

The safest words are always those which bring us most directly to facts.

—Charles H. Parkhurst
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group L
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "l".

Well done is better than well said.

—Benjamin Franklin
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group M
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "m".

Experience seems to be the only thing of any value that's widely distributed

—William Feather
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group N
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "n".

The mind is like the stomach. It is not how much you put into it that counts, but how much it digests.

—A.J. Nock
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group O
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "o".

The aim of education should be to convert the mind into a living fountain, and not a reservoir. That which is filled by merely pumping in, will be emptied by pumping out.

—John M Mason
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 1)
Confusing Words: Group P
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "p".

Four things do not come back: the spoken word, the sped arrow, the past life, and the neglected opportunity.

—Arabian Proverb
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group Q
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "q" .

He is wise who knows the sources of knowledge; who knows who has written it and where it is to be found.

—A.A. Hodge
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group R
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "r" .

True enjoyment comes from activity of the mind and exercise of the body; the two are always united.

—Humbolt
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group S
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "s".

The recipe for perpetual ignorance is: Be satisfied with your opinions and content with your knowledge.

—Elbert Hubbard
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group T
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "t".

Being ignorant is not as shameful as being unwilling to learn.

—E.C. McKenzie

Today's "with-it" Americans flood their minds with information; such as, random messages from the instant-everywhere, leaving all too little room for the knowledge they really need.

—Daniel J. Boorstin
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group U
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "u".

Among the few things more expensive than an education these days is the lack of it.

—E.C. McKenzie
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group V
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "v".

Those who don't read have no advantage over those who can't.

—E.C. McKenzie
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group W
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "w".

Education is not merely received. It is achieved.

—E.C. McKenzie
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group X
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "x".

A good education is knowing what you want, knowing where to get it, and knowing what to do with it after you get it.

—E.C. McKenzie
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group Y
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "y".

Knowledge is the small part of ignorance that we arrange and classify.

—Ambrose Bierce
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Group Z
Lists of confusing words with the first word in each group beginning with the letter "z".

It's a good idea to take an interest in the future because that's where we will be spending the rest of our lives.

We prepare for our future by making the best use of the present.

—E.C. McKenzie
This entry is located in the following unit: Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z (page 2)
Confusing Words: Units Listed, Section A
Lists of confusing words that are clarified with examples.
This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 2)
Focusing on Words Newsletter #01
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #02
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #03
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #04
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #05
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #06
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #07
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #08
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #09
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #10
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #11
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Focusing on Words Newsletter #12
This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletter Index of Contents (page 1)
Focusing on Words Newsletter #13
This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletter Index of Contents (page 1)
Focusing on Words Newsletter #14
This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletter Index of Contents (page 1)
illustrated vocabulary words from comics
Using big words in comics.
Examples of using big words by comic characters.
Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group A

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group A.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group B

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group B.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group C

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group C.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group D

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group D.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group E

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group E.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group F

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group F.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group G

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group G.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group H

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group H.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group I

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group I.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group J

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group J.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group L

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group L.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group M

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group M.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group N

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group N.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group O

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group O.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group P

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group P.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group Q

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group Q.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group R

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group R.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group S

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group S.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group T

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group T.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group U

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group U.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group V

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group V.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group X

Expressions of general truths: Greek through Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group X.

Mottoes, Slogans, Proverbs, Adages, Words of Wisdom: Latin and Greek to English Units
Units of Latin-Greek mottoes with English translations.
This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 3)
Poem: Words by Robert Service
Expressing a special fondness for words even as a castaway on an island.
This entry is located in the following unit: Poems: Index (page 1)
Unit Test, Acous (Hearing) Words

Acous Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Acous (Hearing) Words

Acous Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Acro (High, Top, Tip) Words

Acro Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Acro (High, Top, Tip) Words

Acro Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Aero (Air, Wind) Words

Aero Words, Quiz .


Unit Test, Aero (Air, Wind) Words

Aero Words, Quiz #2.


Unit Test, Algesi (Pain) Words

Algesi Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Algesi (Pain) Words

Algesi Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Algesi (Pain) Words

Algesi Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Andro (Man) Words

Andro Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Andro (Man) Words

Andro Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Bio (Life, Live) Words

Bio Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Bio (Life, Live) Words

Bio Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Bio (Life, Live) Words

Bio Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Bio (Life, Live) Words

Bio Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Bio (Life, Live) Words

Bio Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Bio (Life, Live) Words

Bio Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Cole (Dwelling, Living) Words

-Cole Words, Suffixes Quiz.


Unit Test, Cole (Dwelling, Living) Words

-Cole Words, Suffixes Quiz.


Unit Test, Cryo (Cold, Freezing) Words

Cryo Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Cryo (Cold, Freezing) Words

Cryo Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Esthe (Feeling, Sensation) Words

Esthe Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Esthe (Feeling, Sensation) Words

Esthe Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Esthe (Feeling, Sensation) Words

Esthe Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Esthe (Feeling, Sensation) Words

Esthe Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Gyno (Woman) Words

Gyno Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Gyno (Woman) Words

Gyno Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Iatro (Medical Treatment) Words

Iatro Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Logo (Speak, Word) Words

Logo Words, Quiz #1.


Unit Test, Mania (Obsession, Excessive Fondness) Words

Mania Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Mania (Obsession, Excessive Fondness) Words

Mania Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Mania (Obsession, Excessive Fondness) Words

Mania Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Mania (Obsession, Excessive Fondness) Words

Mania Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Mania (Obsession, Excessive Fondness) Words

Mania Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Orchid (Testes) Words

Orchid Words, Quiz #1.


Unit Test, Pass (Sensory) Words

Sensory Words, Quiz #1.


Unit Test, Pass (Sensory) Words

Sensory Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Patho #1 (Feeling) Words

Patho Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Patho #2 (Suffering, Disease) Words

Patho Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Patho #3 (Suffering, Disease) Words

Patho Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Patho #4 (Suffering, Disease) Words

Patho Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Phago (Eat, Consume) Words

Phago Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Phago (Eat, Consume) Words

Phago Words, Quiz #2.


Unit Test, Phago (Eat, Consume) Words

Phago Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Phago (Eat, Consume) Words

Phago Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Philo (Love, Fondness) Words

Philo Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Sensory (Feeling, Sensation) Words

Sensory Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Sensory (Feeling, Sensation) Words

Sensory Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Sensory (Feeling, Sensation) Words

Sensory Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Theo (God, god) Words

Theo Words, Quiz.


This entry is located in the following unit: theo-, the-, -theism, -theist, -theistic (page 13)
Unit Test, Theo (God, god) Words

Theo Words, Quiz.


This entry is located in the following unit: theo-, the-, -theism, -theist, -theistic (page 13)
Unit Test, Therapy (Treatment, Healing) Words

Therapy Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Therapy (Treatment, Healing) Words

Therapy Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Thermo (Heat, Hot) Words

Thermo Words, Quiz.

Unit Test, Thermo (Heat, Hot) Words

Thermo Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Thermo (Heat, Hot) Words

Thermo Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Vorous (Eat, Consume) Words

Vorous Words, Quiz #1.


Unit Test, Vorous (Eat, Consume) Words

Vorous Words, Quiz.


Unit Test, Vorous (Eat, Consume) Words

Vorous Words, Quiz.


Vocabulary Quizzes: English Words from Latin and Greek Origins
Lists of Vocabulary Self-Scoring Quzzes and Tests; another approach to learning English words.
This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 4)
Vocabulary Quizzes: English Words from Latin and Greek Origins
An index of a variety of self-scoring Vocabulary Quizzes, from word units.
vocabulary word (s) (noun), vocabulary words (pl)
Words words.

A pleonasm, or redundancy, since "vocabulary" is defined as "words"; however, the two elements are now so widely used together that very few people seem to be aware of their repetitious existence.

Word Entries at Get Words: “words
WORDS
What Objectively Records Definitive Speech.
This entry is located in the following unit: Bacronyms or Backronyms Listed (page 1)
(shortened forms of spoken words or written symbols, or phrases, used chiefly in writing to represent the complete forms)
(word entries based on Australian native terms)
(etymology of words or their original "true meanings"; a rich source of information regarding the earliest meanings of words as they migrated from the past into the present)
(terms restricted to the study of social insects; such as, ants and words that apply generally to entomology)
(Latin: war; bellum, war; bellare, to wage war)
(Dr. Rocke Robertson collected more than 600 dictionaries and many other books; a true dictionary bibliophile)
(Dr. Rocke Robertson collected more than 600 dictionaries and many other books; a true dictionary bibliophile)
(Dr. Rocke Robertson collected more than 600 dictionaries and many other books; a true dictionary bibliophile)
(more information about Dr. Harold Rocke Robertson donated by his son, Ian Robertson)
(many blended words have entered English since the 1800's; a significant number of which are corporate brand names)
(words that end with cate and are pronounced KAYT)
(all of the enhanced units present parts of speeches (when applicable), have definitions for word entries, and clarifying sentences in context)
(connecting words or groups of words)
(Jekyll-and-Hyde words; words that have two distinctly contrary or even opposite meanings)
(judicial or legal words that may apply to trial processes that determine the guilt or innocence of people which is ascertained by either judges or juries)
(this summary of English history is continued from the Get Words home page)
(an official language of the Republic of South Africa which developed from the Dutch of the colonists who went there in the 1600's; South African Dutch)
(the language of a group of American Indian tribes that lived in the valleys of the Ottawa River and of the northern tributaries of the St. Lawrence River)
(an American Indian or an Eskimo; any of the languages of certain American Indians or Eskimos)
(words that have come into English directly or indirectly, from or through, Arabic)
(A history of the English Language)
(languages spoken by over 400 closely related groups in central, east-central, and southern Africa, belonging to the South Central subgroup of the Niger-Congo language family and including Swahili, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Zulu, Xhosa, etc.)
(many words in English come from a variety of foreign sources)
(an alphabetized listing of links to a world of the uncompromising multi-purpose, majestic, and fathomable universe of words)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern contents)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(an extensive list of words with explanations that can expand and greatly improve your English vocabulary)
(Greek: eu, "good, well; sounding good" + pheme, "speaking, speech"; mild, agreeable, or roundabout words used in place of coarse, painful, or offensive ones)
(words that are involved with the father who imprisoned his daughter)
(the first newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the second newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the third newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the fourth newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the fifth newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the sixth newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the seventh newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the eighth newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the ninth newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the tenth newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the eleventh newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the twelfth newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the thirteenth newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(the fourteenth newsletter of a series that was formerly presented to subscribers by the Sr. Scribe, a.k.a. John Robertson)
(palindromes quiz answers from Focusing on Words Newsletter #8)
(here are 14 important words with elements from Latin and Greek sources)
(examples of how words can be applied in abnormal ways)
(when visiting old graveyards and examining the epitaphs on gravestones, there are certain words and phrases which could be difficult or impossible to understand without knowing what the words in this unit mean)
(understanding how English words are formed and where they come from helps everyone who finds unfamiliar words)
(a few words from the Reader's Digest, March, 1932)
(a few words from the Reader's Digest, July, 1940)
(Latin origins of words in English characterized by "jumping, leaping", or "springing forward")
(Italian developed from Latin and the following words came into English from Italian; most of which were derived from Latin)
(the first Latin words to find their way into the English language owe their adoption to the early contact between the Roman and the Germanic tribes on the European continent and Greek came with Latin and French while others were borrowed directly; especially, in the fields of science and technology)
(just a few of the many important words with several applications in common practice and referring to special technical and scientific operations)
(there are certain anatomic terms which present various situations; for example, a body part may be horizontal, as opposed to vertical; in front as opposed to being behind or at the back; above as opposed to being under, etc.)
(fashion terms including the invention of new words for items that apply specifically to men's fashions)
(words that don't mean what they look like or what many people assume that they should mean)
(these words have become a part of the English language over recent years)
(previously published list of Focusing on Words Newsletters)
(names of words)
(based on words from The Washington Post's "Style Invitational" in which readers were given the opportunity to take any word from the dictionary, alter it by adding, subtracting, or changing one letter, and then to provide a new definition for the modified word)
(poetic, figures of speech, and words primarily referring to the content of various types of poems)
(words to live by, to inspire, and to give guidance)
(showing a relationship between words)
(words that take the places of nouns)
(using the creations of pumpkins to illustrate some words)
(symbols at the beginning and end of a word or groups of words)
(reversible English words that can be spelled forward and backward and still produce normal words with different meanings)
(terms appearing in some "scientific" areas from about 2000 B.C. to 1799 A.D.)
(terms appearing in some "scientific" areas from about 1800 A.D. to 1899 A.D.)
(obscure verbal usages that challenge your comprehension as to what they mean)
(obscure verbal usages that challenge our comprehension as to what they mean)
(Shakespeare is given credit for coining more than 1,500 words for the English language)
(bibliographic sources of information from which words and topics have been compiled about scientific and technological topics)
(bibliographic sources of information from which words and sentences have been compiled about words and expressions English speakers should know for better understanding and communication)
(Sesquipedalia Verba or Sesquipedalians are references to the use of excessively long words)
(A family of words ending in -ude.)
(knowledge about special topics that enhance a person's understanding about certain words)
(as presented by Mickey Bach, the cartoonist who defined words with related illustrations)
(using definitions and a letter added to the beginning of the second word of two words with the same spellings will produce two completely different words)
(sentences that illustrate the manipulations of words with one meaning into different applications)
(words exist in all sizes and degrees of difficulty from numerous languages and English continues to churn out new words from the past and the present)
(words being used in news media headlines, subheadings, and excerpts from applicable articles with certain words being listed in bold and defined separately)
(a suffix freely used to designate someone who is associated with, concerned with, or characterized by a thing or an expression; sometimes, with a jocular [humorous] or derisive [contempt or ridicule] intent; borrowed from Russian, a common personal suffix)
(many of the words used today in English are derived from Greek myths)
(an exhibition of words that appear in headlines and sub-headlines which all of us should know)
(lists of words used in context from various printed media; including, statements that help readers determine how words function in various contents)
(Many words from French are used in English)
(there are many words which may be rarely seen by a vast number of people; however, they have been existing and they are still available for one's use or enlightenment)
(a collection of English words that have been used in the titles of articles from various printed media)
Word Entries at Get Words containing the term: “words
1000 Most Challenging Words
By Norman W. Schur; Facts On File Publications; New York; 1987.
This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Words in Action (page 1)
1000 Most Practical Words
By Norman W. Schur; Facts On File Publications; New York; 1983.
This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Words in Action (page 1)
A message from someone who recently purchased a copy of Words for a Modern Age, A Cross Reference of Latin and Greek Combining Elements

John Robertson:

I received your book on 6/26/00. Congratulations on a great book. You no doubt spent a great amount of time in research. I find the book fascinating.

It’s been over 45 years since I studied Latin and Greek in college and unless one keeps it up, one tends to forget. You have rekindled my interest. Now that I’m retired, I’ll have more time. I have always been interested in the origin of words especially from Latin and Greek.

Because the schools do not teach Latin and Greek as they once did, your book would be invaluable in helping students with the English language; thereby enriching their thought process. I am so happy that we still have people in this world who regard knowledge of Latin and Greek essential to scholarly development.

To quote Seneca, Jr. from your book: “Non scholae, sed vitae discimus.” Thank you for your “illusions” and also many thanks to your wife.

Jeffrey

Note from your editor: The “illusions” referred to the dedication in Words for a Modern Age, A Cross Reference of Latin and Greek Combining Elements in which I wrote: “Dedicated to my wife, who has been my sine qua non. She has kept me in good health with her loving concern for my well being and has rarely interfered with my efforts to strive for my ‘illusions.’ ”

The Latin quotation by Seneca, Jr. means: “We don’t learn just for school, but we learn for life.”.




Speaking of books. The following came from "The Spelling Newsletter" published by Ray Laurita, Leonardo Press, PO Box 1326, Camden, ME 04843.


Can This Be True? Department

After reading the following exchange which appeared in the Metropolitan Diary, I have a feeling that our readers will be equally dismayed:

Carol Ruth Langer stopped at the information desk of a Barnes & Noble in Midtown to inquire about a copy of the Book of Job.


"How would you be spelling 'Job'?" the clerk asked.

"J -- O -- B", Ms. Langer said.

"Job books are in the career section."

Ms. Langer tried again. "Not job, Job, a book in the Bible".

"Who is the author" the clerk asked.


At that point, Ms. Langer knew it was time to leave.


As seen in the May 15, 2000, issue of the New York Times.
This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #11 (page 1)
About English Words
The history of how, when, and why hundreds of words have entered the English language unit.
Additional words that were found which are derived from the Greek element tribo- are explained in the following contents:

Additional words that exist that are derived from the Greek element tribo-: nanotribology, [no dictionary seems to be available that has a definition for this term.] The following definitions came from various sources on the internet.

First, on Thursday, January 21, 1999, there was the following information from Dr. Jacqueline Krim, Professor of Physics at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina:

“Thank you for your inquiry. Yes, I coined the term nanotribology in a paper I wrote in 1991, entitled, ‘Nanotribology of a Kr [krypton] monolayer: A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Study of Atomic-Scale Friction’, J. Krim, D. Solina and R. Chiarello, PRL, 66, (1991) p. 181-184.”

“I would define nanotribology as the sub-field of tribology involving contact geometries which are well-characterized at atomic length or time scales. These tend to be on the order of nanometers and nanoseconds.”

“JK”


Secondly, on Friday, January 22, 1999, I received another clarifying definition that I had requested from a contact I found on the internet.

I asked for a simple, easy to understand definition of “nanotribology” and this is what he sent to me:

“Tribology is the science and technology of two surfaces in relative motion which encompasses friction, wear, and lubrication. Nanotribology allows the study of friction and wear processes on nanoscale.”

—Prof. Bharat Bhushan, Ohio Eminent Scholar and The Howard D. Winbigler Professor
and Director, Computer Microtribology and Contamination Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio

Now you know what nanotribology means, don’t you? If you want to know more about nanotribology, here are excerpts of other definitions; but be WARNED that if they are too confusing or of no interest to you, you may scroll down to the area where other tribo- words are presented. Don’t give up before you see the rest of the list, please.

Micro/nanotribology as a field is concerned with experimental and theoretical investigations of processes ranging from atomic and molecular scales to the microscale, occurring during adhesion, friction, wear, and thin-film lubrication at sliding surfaces.

This involves determination of the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the surfaces undergoing relative motion at length scales of the order of nanometers. Interaction between rubbing surfaces occurs at asperities [roughness of surfaces] at which the local pressure and temperatures can be very high.

These conditions can lead to formation of tribochemical films with the unusual properties necessary for efficient wear protection. The nanomechanical properties of these films are being investigated by interfacial force microscopy (IFM) which is capable of determining the elastic constants and anelastic behavior of the films in boundary layer lubrication.

Proposed nanotribology experiments for the Triboscope include studying the effect of different contact areas, scan directions and crystallographic orientations on both lubricated and unlubricated surfaces.

Tribology is the study of friction, lubrication and wear. Nanotribology is roughly defined as the study of these same phenomena down to the nN and nanometer force and length scales.

I hope I haven’t lost you in the sea of obfuscation (confusion, obscurity, or bewilderment) because there are other interesting words to learn. Here are additional examples that are derived from tribo-:

  • triboelectric, an electrical charge produced by friction between two objects; such as, rubbing silk on a glass surface.
  • triboelectricity, in physics, electrical charges produced by friction between two surfaces; static electricity.
  • Frictional electricity … was supposedly known to the ancient Greeks, particularly Thales of Miletus, who observed about 600 B.C. that when amber was rubbed, it would attract small bits of matter. The term “frictional electricity” gave way to “triboelectricity,” although since “tribo” means “to rub,” the newer term does little to change the concept.

    —A.D. Moore (as seen in The American Heritage Dictionary of Science
    by Robert K. Barnhart; Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston; 1986).

  • tribofluorescence, triboflurescent; to give off light as a result of friction.
  • tribologist, a specialist in the science of tribology.
  • tribology, tribological, the science of the mechanisms of friction, lubrication, and wear of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion.
  • triboluminescence, the quality of emitting light under friction or violent mechanical pressure.
  • triboluminescent, exhibiting triboluminescence.
  • tribophosphorescence, tribophosphorescent; to produce light by friction.
  • tribothermoluminescence, thermoluminescence [luminescence resulting from exposure to high temperature] produced in a material as a result of friction.
  • tribometer, an instrument for estimating sliding friction.
  • tribophysics, the physical properties or phenomena associated with friction.
  • tribophosphoroscope, an instrument for examining triboluminescence.
  • tribulation, originally from Greek; then through Latin, “to press; affliction”; distress, great trial, or affliction.

“The Roman tribulum was a sledge consisting of a wooden block studded with sharp pieces of flint or iron teeth. It was used to bring force and pressure against wheat in grinding out grain.

The machine suggested the way trouble grinds people down and oppresses them, tribulations becoming another word for troubles and afflictions. The word is first recorded in English in 1330.”.

—From the Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins
by Robert Hendrickson; Facts On File, Inc., New York; 1997.

The Romans ground out their corn [make that grain-J.R.] with a heavy roller, mentioned in Vergil’s Georgics among agricultural instruments: the tribulum, diminutive noun, from tritere, trit —, to rub, from Greek tribein, to rub. Being ground under and pressed out made an excellent metaphor to express the trials and tribulations of the early Christians.

Dictionary of Word Origins by Joseph T. Shipley.

“To know the origin of words is to know how men think, how they have fashioned their civilization. Word history traces the path of human fellowship, the bridges from mind to mind, from nation to nation.

“Some of the words in our language can be traced to a remote past; some have histories that begin but yesterday. Many are members of large families, with intertwining legend and history. Slow change, swift new coinage of science or slang, ancient or recent borrowing from many tongues: together they give flexibility, power, and beauty to English, the richest and most widespread language of all time.”

— Joseph T. Shipley, from the Preface of his Dictionary of Word Origins.
This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #05 (page 1)
Amazing Histories of Words

Lists of word histories including a wide variety of well-known English terms.

This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
Apollo, god of the Sun, words from myths
The Sun god who brings life-giving heat and light to Earth unit.
Confusing Words, Index of Clarified Groups A-Z
Lists of homonyms, homophones, homographs, and other words that cause confusions unit.
Criminal Court Words or Judicial Terms

Lists of legal words referring to judiciary or trial courts.

This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
Did they say what I think they said? Words from “great thinkers”, past and present.

  • “I’m not going to have some reporters pawing through our papers. We are the President.” —Attributed to Hillary Clinton, commenting about the release of subpoenaed documents

  • “Smoking kills, and if you’re killed, you’ve lost a very important part of your life.” —Attributed to Brooke Shields.

  • “We’re going to turn this team around 360 degrees.” —Attributed to Jason Kidd, upon his drafting to the Dallas Mavericks.

  • “The President has kept all of the promises he intended to keep.” —Attributed to Former Clinton aide, George Stephanopolous speaking on “Larry King Live.”

  • “China is a big country, inhabited by many Chinese.” —Attributed to Former French President, Charles de Gaulle.

  • “If you let that sort of thing go on, your bread and butter will be cut right out from under your feet.” —Attributed to Former British Foreign Minister, Ernest Bevin.

  • “The streets are safe in Philadelphia. It’s only the people that make them unsafe.” —Attributed to the former Philadelphia Mayor and Police Chief, Frank Rizzo

  • “When more and more people are thrown out of work, unemployment results” —Attributed to former U.S. President (30th), Calvin Coolidge

  • “They’re multipurpose. Not only do they put the clips on, but they take them off.” —Attributed to a Pratt and Whitney spokesperson explaining why the company charged the U.S. Air Force almost $1,000 for an ordinary pair of pliers.

  • “To have 20-year old girls jumping up and down in front of you is more effective than Viagra.” —Andy Williams, American singer, 70, whose song “Music to Watch Girls By” has seen a recent revival on British pop charts [as seen in Time magazine’s “Verbatim”, April 5, 1999].

  • “Freedom of the press must have restrictions.” —Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, Malaysia’s Deputy PM, after the judge in the sodomy trial of Anwar Ibrahim placed a gag order on the media [as seen in Time magazine’s “Verbatim”, May 17, 1999].

  • “Remember, they only name things after you when you’re dead or really old.” —Barbara Bush, former U.S. First Lady, as CIA headquarters was renamed after her husband George (obviously, former President of the U.S.) [as seen in Time magazine’s “Verbatim”, May 10, 1999].

  • “When you talk to the average person, they are not all victims of homicide.” —Jerry Brown, currently Mayor of Oakland, California; formerly Governor of California; and formerly a U.S. Presidential candidate. Heard (twice) on the “Paul Harvey News and Comments” radio program on ABC News, June 1 (repeated on June 2), 1999.
  • This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #07 (page 1)
    Earth, Words from the Myths
    Gaia, Earth goddess of the ancient Greeks, she was called Gaea, Terra Mater, "Earth Mother" by the Romans; third planet from the sun unit.
    Energy Sources of Words
    Scientific research into scientific Energy Sources of Words.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 1)
    Official language of the Republic of South Africa which developed from the Dutch.
    This entry is located in the following unit: English Words from Other Languages Index (page 1)
    Language of a group of American Indian tribes that lived in the valleys of the Ottawa River and of the northern tributaries of the St. Lawrence River.
    This entry is located in the following unit: English Words from Other Languages Index (page 1)
    Languages of certain American Indians or Eskimos.
    This entry is located in the following unit: English Words from Other Languages Index (page 1)
    Words that have come into English directly or indirectly, from or through Arabic.
    This entry is located in the following unit: English Words from Other Languages Index (page 1)
    Languages spoken by over 400 closely related groups in central, east-central, and southern Africa, belonging to the South Central subgroup of the Niger-Congo language family; including Swahili, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Zulu, Xhosa, etc.
    This entry is located in the following unit: English Words from Other Languages Index (page 1)
    English Words in Action, Groups A to Z

    An alphabetized listing of links to groups of English words in action as seen in sentences with short definitions.

    Words are being added daily to expand your potential vocabulary for this modern age.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #01
    Newsletter #1, contents include:
    • Latin phrases you should know.
    • News about the unusual.
    • It’s [sic], but that’s the way it is.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #02
    Newsletter #2, contents include:
    • Lose/Loose, How [sic] Can It Be?
    • Playing with Words.
    • Quotes Worth Your Time.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #03
    Newsletter #3, contents include:
    • Auf Wiedersehen, English.
    • Letters from Readers.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #04
    Newsletter #4, contents include:
    • Instructions for use of actual products. No kidding.
    • Principal/Principle and mnemonic devices.
    • More letters from readers.
    • More Denglish.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #05
    Newsletter #5, contents include:
    • Words in the News.
    • The Greek Element tribo- and Its Practical Commercial Applications.
    • “Lawyer Idiocy” — Some Examples.
    • Results of Previous Mnemonic Devices Survey.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #06
    Newsletter #6, contents include:
    • Responses to letters.
    • Quid Novum? Erratum, Errata.
    • Cyber-Legerdemain—Don’t miss this cyber magic!
    • Let’s Use Pronouns Properly.
    • Some Serious Considerations—Think about It!
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #07
    Newsletter #7, contents include:
    • There are dictionaries and there are dictionaries.
    • Did they say what I think they said?
    • New Additions to the Search Areas
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #08
    Newsletter #8, contents include:
    • Palindromes activity.
    • Sesquipedalian Challenges.
    • Logical Sequence Activity.
    • Educational Sources.
    • Golden-Oldies Poems.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #09
    Newsletter #9, contents include:
    • U.S. Teachers and cheating (many quotes from news sources).
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #10
    Newsletter #10, contents include:
    • Reader responses to teachers and cheating.
    • Did they really write those headlines?
    • New words from old words.
    • Dan Quayle and Groucho Marx Quotes.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #11
    Newsletter #11, contents include:
    • Political Quotes on Target.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #12
    Newsletter #12, contents include:
    • Information about the new international phobia.
    • Sesquipedalian challenges with answers.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #13
    Newsletter #13, contents include:
    • An Obfuscation Chart for Creating Bureaucratic Jargon.
    • Translating Politgabble
    • Words poem.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Focusing on Words Newsletter #14
    Newsletter #14, contents includes:

    Ponder These Quotations.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Newsletters Index of Focusing on Words Contents (page 1)
    Graveyard Words for a Greater Understanding of Epitaphs

    Lists of words used on old gravestones which used Latin terms.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
    Medical Orientation Words with Reference to the Body

    Medical references as related to the body or anatomy.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
    Misleading Meanings of English Words

    English words that don't mean what they look like as they are often assumed to be.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 2)
    Mnemonic devices can guarantee greater accuracy in spelling certain English words.

    Before you read this section about mnemonics, please STOP here NOW, and take a “pre-test” over the words that will be discussed. Even if you do well on this test, you may still come back for the presentation. So, please go to (click on) the Mnemonics "Seed" Quiz over -cede, -ceed, -sede words to see how well you can spell words that have the endings that are pronounced “seed”.

    How to decide between -cede, -ceed, and -sede.

    The spelling of many English words is confusing even to those whose first language is English.

    Problems: Is it supercede, superceed, or supersede? Is it accede or acceed? Is it proceed or preceed, and is it excede or exceed?


  • Let’s examine the simple facts and basic principles behind the spelling patterns of all of the English words that end with the pronunciation of seed. There are just twelve words that have the seed pronounced endings.
  • To avoid doubt and confusion, to be able to make an instantaneous, self-assured, and accurate decision on the spelling of any word whose final syllable is pronounced seed, you have to know two things:

    1. Of the twelve words, one, and only one, ends in the four letters -S-E-D-E. That one word is supersede
    Supersede, is the only word in the entire English language that is spelled with the -sede ending.

    Supersede was born in Rome thousands of years ago. It comes from Latin super, “above”, and sedeo, “to sit”.

    If one thing supersedes another, it figuratively, and by derivation, “sits above or over it”; that is, “it replaces” something. An example: “The year 2000 will supersede 1999.”

    Supersede is the only verb in English that derives directly from Latin sedeo, to sit, hence the only word with the -sede termination.

    There are many nouns and adjectives that come indirectly from sedeo or one of its forms:

    president, one who sits before a group;
    sedentary, moving little, hence sitting, as in a sedentary occupation;
    session, a sitting or meeting of a group of people;
    sedate, calm, hence sitting still, etc.

    2. There are three other unique words that you should learn, the three words that end in the letters -C-E-E-D: succeed, proceed, and exceed.

  • These two facts, that only supersede ends in -sede, and that only succeed, proceed, and exceed end in -ceed, permit you to make an immediate and correct choice between -sede, -ceed, and -cede.
  • Obviously, with two of the three possible spellings accounted for, the eight remaining words of the original twelve can end in only one way: -C-E-D-E.
  • 3. It’s unnecessary that you learn what these eight words are or that you learn how to spell all or any of them because you know that they all end with -cede.
  • For your information, here are the eight words:

    accede, to give consent; to become a party to an agreement or treaty.

    antecede, to precede; that is, to come before in time or order.

    cede, to surrender possession of formally or officially; to yield or grant, as by a treaty.

    concede, 1. To acknowledge as true, just, or proper, often unwillingly; to admit by conceding the point. 2. To give or grant as a privilege or right.

    intercede, to argue on another’s behalf; to act as a mediator in a dispute; to come between.

    precede, to come before in time, in rank, or order.

    recede, to move back or away from a limit, point, or mark.

    secede, to withdraw formally from membership in an association, organization, or alliance, especially a political one.

  • How can you remember that succeed, proceed, and exceed belong in a class by themselves, and are not to be confused with the eight -cede words? How can you fix these three crucial verbs permanently in your mind, nail them down for all time?

  • Keep these facts in mind:

    Succeed starts with “s”.
    Proceed starts with “p”, and means go ahead.
    Exceed starts with “e”.

  • Now think of, and remember, the key phrase: “Full Speed Ahead”. This one phrase, Full Speed Ahead, and in particular the word speed, will be your guarantee against two unpleasant possibilities:

    1. Any annoying doubt as to whether a word correctly ends in -ceed or -cede.

    2. Any error in writing -cede for -ceed, or vice versa.


  • Notice how simply this mnemonic works:

    Speed ends in -eed.
    The “s” of speed identifies succeed.
    The “p” of speed identifies proceed.
    The “e” of speed identifies exceed.
    The ending of speed identifies the endings of all three words: succeed, proceed, exceed.
    Finally, the word “ahead” in “Full Speed Ahead” identifies proceed, which means “go ahead”, and eliminates “precede”, which means “come before”.

  • There is one irregularity that you should be aware of:

    Proceed, as you know, belongs to one of the three -ceed verbs, but the noun and adjective forms do not follow the same format. Contrary to what you might normally expect, these forms are spelled: procedure and procedural.


  • That’s all there is to the problem of making a choice between -cede, -ceed, and
    -sede.
  • Here are the basic principles again:

    Only one word in English ends in -sede, namely supersede.

    Only three words in English end in -ceed, namely succeed, proceed, and exceed (mnemonic: Full speed Ahead).

    All of the other words with a similar “seed” sound end in -cede.

    Procedure and procedural; however, do not follow the pattern of proceed.

    Now is a good time to test yourself.


    Would you like to see if the mnemonic devices I have given to you function properly? If so, just click on this self-grading Mnemonics "Seed" Quiz again so you can re-take the -cede, -ceed, -sede words so you can see how easy it is to recognize the correct spelling of these words.

  • This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #04 (page 1)
    Newly formed words from The Washington Post

    The Washington Post recently published a contest for readers in which they were asked to supply alternate meanings for various words. The following were some of the winning entries:


    • Abdicate (v.), to give up all hope of ever having a flat stomach.
    • Carcinoma (n.), a valley in California, notable for its heavy smog.
    • Esplanade (v.), to attempt an explanation while drunk.
    • Willy-nilly (adj.), impotent.
    • Flabbergasted (adj.), appalled over how much weight you have gained.
    • Negligent (adj.), describes a condition in which you absentmindedly answer the door in your nightie.
    • Lymph (v.), to walk with a lisp.
    • Gargoyle (n.), an olive-flavored mouthwash.
    • Coffee (n.), a person who is coughed upon.
    • Flatulence (n.) the emergency vehicle that picks you up after you are run over by a steamroller.
    • Balderdash (n.), a rapidly receding hairline.
    • Semantics (n.), pranks conducted by young men studying for the priesthood, including such things as gluing the pages of the priest's prayer book together just before vespers.
    • Circumvent (n.), the opening in the front of boxer shorts.
    • Frisbatarianism (n.), The belief that, when you die, your soul goes up on the roof and gets stuck there.

    The Washington Post's Style Invitational also asked readers to take any word from the dictionary, alter it by adding, subtracting or changing one letter, and supply a new definition. Here are some recent winners:

    • Sarchasm: The gulf between the author of sarcastic wit and the reader who doesn't get it.
    • Reintarnation: Coming back to life as a hillbilly.
    • Giraffiti: Vandalism spray-painted very high.
    • Foreploy: Any misrepresentation about yourself for the purpose of obtaining sex.
    • Inoculatte: To take coffee intravenously.
    • Osteopornosis: A degenerate disease.
    • Karmageddon: It's like, when everybody is sending off all these really bad vibes, right? And then, like, the Earth explodes and it's like a serious bummer.
    • Glibido: All talk and no action.
    • Dopeler effect: The tendency of stupid ideas to seem smarter when they come at you rapidly.
    • Intaxication: Euphoria at getting a refund from the IRS, which lasts until you realize it was your money to start with.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #10 (page 1)
    Photovoltaic Conversion Efficiency Words
    An extensive list of Photovoltaic words about conversion efficiency.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 2)
    play on words
    Isaac did a theatrical performance about puns. It was a play on words.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Fun with Words (page 1)
    Playing with Words

    Someone sent this to me without any additional source references. I thought you might enjoy the play on words.

    The Washington Post’s “Style Invitational” asks readers to take any word from the dictionary, alter it by adding, subtracting, or changing one letter, and supply a new definition. Here are some recent winners:

    • Foreploy: any misrepresentation about yourself for the purpose of deceiving the opposite sex.
    • Tatyr: a lecherous Mr. Potato Head.
    • Doltergeist: a spirit that decides to haunt someplace stupid, such as your septic tank.
    • Giraffiti: vandalism spray-painted very, very high, such as on an overpass.
    • Sarchasm: the gulf between the author of sarcastic wit and the recipient who doesn't get it.
    • Contratemps: the resentment permanent workers feel toward the fill-in workers.
    • Impotience: eager anticipation by men awaiting their Viagra prescription.
    • Reintarnation: coming back to life as a hillbilly.
    • Inoculatte: to take coffee intravenously when you are running late.
    • Hipatitis: terminal coolness.
    • Guillozine: a magazine for executioners.
    • Suckotash: a dish consisting of corn, lima beans and tofu.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #02 (page 1)
    Put words in her mouth (2 Samuel 14:3)
    This entry is located in the following unit: Bible Quotations used in modern English (page 4)
    Results of Previous "Mnemonic devices can guarantee greater accuracy in spelling English words.

    First, the results of the principal/principle survey

    The spelling of many English words are confusing even to those whose first language is English.

    There were 45 per cent of the subscribers on the Focusing on Words Newsletter list who responded to the survey.

    • 1. The (principal/principle) reason for this discussion is to improve one’s spelling skills.

      Of those responding, 68 per cent chose the right answer (principal).

    • 2. All of us should live by certain moral (principals/principles).

      Ninety-nine per cent chose the right answer (principles) in number two.

    • 3. The (principal/principle) character in the play is ill.

      In number three, eighty-two per cent chose the right answer (principal).

    • 4. His political (principals/principles) are less than acceptable.

      In number four, ninety-seven per cent chose the right answer (principles).

    • 5. As a matter of (principal/principle), he refused to borrow money from anyone.

      In number five, ninety-seven per cent chose the right answer (principle).

    • 6. The (principal/principle) invested in that project was $100,000.

      Of those participating, eighty-five per cent made the correct choice of (principal) in number six.

    • 7. We must instill into the minds of our youth (principals/principles) of honesty and morality.

      Ninety-seven per cent of participants indicated the right answer (principles) in the last number.

    A few words about the use of mnemonic devices that make it easier to remember how to spell certain words correctly.

    Although many subscribers had different mnemonic devices for determining which principal/principle to use in a sentence, the best mnemonics to use seem to be “main” for principal and “rule” for principle.

    Note the relationship of the “a” in main and principal and the “le” in rule and principle. Always make these relationships and you will always use them correctly.

    Mnemonic [nee MAH nik], as in mnemonic device, comes from the Greek element that means, “memory” or “to remember” and refers to a technique that facilitates making the right choices for words that are otherwise confusing.

    Whenever you want to make sure you have chosen the correct principal/principle, substitute the words main and rule in place of one or the other principal/principle, to see if it makes sense and when it does; it is certain that you have the right choice. For example, in number one, you could say, “The rule reason for this discussion ....” or say, “The main reason for this discussion ....” and you would logically have to choose main or “principal” because the other choice simply doesn’t make any sense.

    So many people have used the mnemonic device of saying, “You spell the principal of the school with pal because he/she is your pal” or something similar to that. I strongly urge that you NOT use this mnemonic because it can be very misleading. It tends to make people think that the use of pal is used only with that particular principal. It is far better to say that the principal of the school is spelled with pal because he/she is the MAIN administrator, teacher, or educator of the school.

    Did you notice the erratum in sentence number seven of the survey. Mea culpa. I used “install” instead of “instill into the minds ....”

    Congratulations to nine subscribers (out of the 412 who participated) who saw and told me about this error (erratum). If there had been more than one erratum, then I would have had to confess to errata.

    Thank you, if you were one of those who contributed to the survey. It was amazing to see that MOST of the participants made no errata in their submissions. I apparently have a VERY knowledgeable list of subscribers!

    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #05 (page 1)
    Science and Technology Words
    An additional list of Science and Technology terms.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 2)
    Success with Words, A Guide to The American Language
    By The Reader's Digest Association, Inc; Pleasantville, New York; 1983.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Words in Action (page 1)
    Words at Work in the Print Media: INDEX

    Lists of words being used in news media headlines, subheadings, and excerpts from applicable articles.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 2)
    Words in the news

    In the December 28, 1998, issue of the International Herald Tribune in the William Safire column called, "Language", he wrote: "Now to the alleged mistake that drew the most mail. In a line about the pronunciation of status, I wrote, 'That is usually pronounced STAT-us, as in statistics, by the highfalutin, and STATE-us by the hoi polloi.' "

    "From Jim Tart of Dallas: 'My daughter Katie tells me that her eighth-grade teacher would have smacked her in the head with her grammar book had she said 'the hoi polloi'. Katie says hoi polloi means "the masses", and therefore should never be proceeded by the. Live by the sword and die by the sword."


    Thank you, Mr. Tart. (And when Katie comes by with her spelling book opened to preceded, watch your head.)

    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #05 (page 1)
    Words of Science and the History behind Them
    Isaac Asimov; Houghton Mifflin Company; Boston; 1959.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Science and Technology (page 1)
    Words Poem

                       Words

    There are words that make us
              Shudder, wince:
              Wormwood, persimmon,
              Alum, quince.

    There are words that soothe
              And tranquilize:
              Slumbering, rainbows,
              Butterflies.

    There are words that tighten,
              Words that roil:
              Tension, turmoil,
              Chaos, spoil.

    There are words that shimmer,
              That beguile:
              Stars, ships, peacocks,
              Firelight, smile.

    And always, words
              That make life full:
              Love, laughter, home,
              Peace, beautiful.

              —E.B. de Vito

    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #13 (page 1)
    Words that are synonyms for war

    Phrases of words that describe the term war:

    • armed conflict
    • warfare
    • hostilities
    • military operations
    • clash of arms
    • combat
    • military attacks
    • battle with opponents
    • take up arms
    This entry is located in the following unit: bellicose, belligerent, et alii = War Words (page 1)
    Words Used in Headings as Seen in a Variety of Publications

    Lists of groups about Words Used in Printed Media Headings as seen in various media publications.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 2)