You searched for: “were
verb "to be": am, is, are; was, were; will be; has been, have been; had been; being (verb forms)
To exist: "He will be here later."
This entry is located in the following unit: verbo-, verb-, verbi- (page 3)
ware, wear, were, where
ware (WAIR) (noun)
Things which are made from a particular material or that are designed for a particular use; usually used in combination with a word to indicate the kind of material: "Keith can find the glassware in the cupboard in the kitchen."
wear (WAIR) (verb)
1. To use or to have something; such as, clothing, to have a shirt, pants, etc. over a part of one's body: "Lillian, will you wear your new shoes to school tomorrow?"
2. The act of using something as clothing: "These shoes are very good to wear everyday or as often as Carol wants to."
3. Damage that is caused by use: "Since so many people are walking on the old rug in the hallway, it is obvious that it will wear out and should be replaced soon."
were (WUR) (verb)
Past tense, plural, and second person singular of the verb to be: "We were all ready to go when Grandma called up ."
where (HWAIR, WAIR) (adverb)
1. Referring to a particular place that something is located in: "Sherry doesn't know where the car keys are."
2. Used for asking about or referring to a situation or a point in a process, discussion, story, etc.: "The police officer asked, Sam, where did you come from and where are you going?"

Paula's friends were all ready to go but she couldn’t decide what to wear to the glassware party and then she realized that she doesn't know where it is.

(other features were incorporated into dictionaries as they continued to evolve)
(Italian developed from Latin and the following words came into English from Italian; most of which were derived from Latin)
(the first Latin words to find their way into the English language owe their adoption to the early contact between the Roman and the Germanic tribes on the European continent and Greek came with Latin and French while others were borrowed directly; especially, in the fields of science and technology)
(based on words from The Washington Post's "Style Invitational" in which readers were given the opportunity to take any word from the dictionary, alter it by adding, subtracting, or changing one letter, and then to provide a new definition for the modified word)
(historical perspectives of thermoscopes to thermometers: Daniel Fahrenheit, Galileo Galilei, Anders Celsius, and Lord Kelvin; among others, were major contributors to temperature calculations as we know them today)
Word Entries at Get Words containing the term: “were
Additional words that were found which are derived from the Greek element tribo- are explained in the following contents:

Additional words that exist that are derived from the Greek element tribo-: nanotribology, [no dictionary seems to be available that has a definition for this term.] The following definitions came from various sources on the internet.

First, on Thursday, January 21, 1999, there was the following information from Dr. Jacqueline Krim, Professor of Physics at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina:

“Thank you for your inquiry. Yes, I coined the term nanotribology in a paper I wrote in 1991, entitled, ‘Nanotribology of a Kr [krypton] monolayer: A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Study of Atomic-Scale Friction’, J. Krim, D. Solina and R. Chiarello, PRL, 66, (1991) p. 181-184.”

“I would define nanotribology as the sub-field of tribology involving contact geometries which are well-characterized at atomic length or time scales. These tend to be on the order of nanometers and nanoseconds.”


Secondly, on Friday, January 22, 1999, I received another clarifying definition that I had requested from a contact I found on the internet.

I asked for a simple, easy to understand definition of “nanotribology” and this is what he sent to me:

“Tribology is the science and technology of two surfaces in relative motion which encompasses friction, wear, and lubrication. Nanotribology allows the study of friction and wear processes on nanoscale.”

—Prof. Bharat Bhushan, Ohio Eminent Scholar and The Howard D. Winbigler Professor
and Director, Computer Microtribology and Contamination Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio

Now you know what nanotribology means, don’t you? If you want to know more about nanotribology, here are excerpts of other definitions; but be WARNED that if they are too confusing or of no interest to you, you may scroll down to the area where other tribo- words are presented. Don’t give up before you see the rest of the list, please.

Micro/nanotribology as a field is concerned with experimental and theoretical investigations of processes ranging from atomic and molecular scales to the microscale, occurring during adhesion, friction, wear, and thin-film lubrication at sliding surfaces.

This involves determination of the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the surfaces undergoing relative motion at length scales of the order of nanometers. Interaction between rubbing surfaces occurs at asperities [roughness of surfaces] at which the local pressure and temperatures can be very high.

These conditions can lead to formation of tribochemical films with the unusual properties necessary for efficient wear protection. The nanomechanical properties of these films are being investigated by interfacial force microscopy (IFM) which is capable of determining the elastic constants and anelastic behavior of the films in boundary layer lubrication.

Proposed nanotribology experiments for the Triboscope include studying the effect of different contact areas, scan directions and crystallographic orientations on both lubricated and unlubricated surfaces.

Tribology is the study of friction, lubrication and wear. Nanotribology is roughly defined as the study of these same phenomena down to the nN and nanometer force and length scales.

I hope I haven’t lost you in the sea of obfuscation (confusion, obscurity, or bewilderment) because there are other interesting words to learn. Here are additional examples that are derived from tribo-:

  • triboelectric, an electrical charge produced by friction between two objects; such as, rubbing silk on a glass surface.
  • triboelectricity, in physics, electrical charges produced by friction between two surfaces; static electricity.
  • Frictional electricity … was supposedly known to the ancient Greeks, particularly Thales of Miletus, who observed about 600 B.C. that when amber was rubbed, it would attract small bits of matter. The term “frictional electricity” gave way to “triboelectricity,” although since “tribo” means “to rub,” the newer term does little to change the concept.

    —A.D. Moore (as seen in The American Heritage Dictionary of Science
    by Robert K. Barnhart; Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston; 1986).

  • tribofluorescence, triboflurescent; to give off light as a result of friction.
  • tribologist, a specialist in the science of tribology.
  • tribology, tribological, the science of the mechanisms of friction, lubrication, and wear of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion.
  • triboluminescence, the quality of emitting light under friction or violent mechanical pressure.
  • triboluminescent, exhibiting triboluminescence.
  • tribophosphorescence, tribophosphorescent; to produce light by friction.
  • tribothermoluminescence, thermoluminescence [luminescence resulting from exposure to high temperature] produced in a material as a result of friction.
  • tribometer, an instrument for estimating sliding friction.
  • tribophysics, the physical properties or phenomena associated with friction.
  • tribophosphoroscope, an instrument for examining triboluminescence.
  • tribulation, originally from Greek; then through Latin, “to press; affliction”; distress, great trial, or affliction.

“The Roman tribulum was a sledge consisting of a wooden block studded with sharp pieces of flint or iron teeth. It was used to bring force and pressure against wheat in grinding out grain.

The machine suggested the way trouble grinds people down and oppresses them, tribulations becoming another word for troubles and afflictions. The word is first recorded in English in 1330.”.

—From the Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins
by Robert Hendrickson; Facts On File, Inc., New York; 1997.

The Romans ground out their corn [make that grain-J.R.] with a heavy roller, mentioned in Vergil’s Georgics among agricultural instruments: the tribulum, diminutive noun, from tritere, trit —, to rub, from Greek tribein, to rub. Being ground under and pressed out made an excellent metaphor to express the trials and tribulations of the early Christians.

Dictionary of Word Origins by Joseph T. Shipley.

“To know the origin of words is to know how men think, how they have fashioned their civilization. Word history traces the path of human fellowship, the bridges from mind to mind, from nation to nation.

“Some of the words in our language can be traced to a remote past; some have histories that begin but yesterday. Many are members of large families, with intertwining legend and history. Slow change, swift new coinage of science or slang, ancient or recent borrowing from many tongues: together they give flexibility, power, and beauty to English, the richest and most widespread language of all time.”

— Joseph T. Shipley, from the Preface of his Dictionary of Word Origins.
This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #05 (page 1)
The results of a diagnostic test given to premedical students who were instructed to write short meanings for a list of medical terms

artery, the study of paintings.

bacteria, the back door of a cafeteria.

barium, what doctors do when patients die.

bowel, a letter like a, e, i, o, or u.

caesarean section, a neighborhood in Rome.

cat scan, searching for a lost cat.

cauterize, making eye-contact with a girl.

coma, a punctuation mark.

dilate, to live a long time.

enema, not a friend .

euthanasia, Chinese, Japanese, etc. adolescents.

fester, quicker.

fibula, a small lie.

genital, not a Jew.

hangnail, a coat hook.

impotent, distinguished, well known.

labor pain, getting hurt at work.

malfeasance, exorbitant charges for professional services.

medical staff, a doctor’s cane.

morbid, a higher offer.

nitrates, cheaper than day rates.

node, was aware of, knew.


1. The art of writing using a pen or pencil stuck up one’s nose.

2. The writing done by a nasograph.

outpatient, someone who has fainted.

pap smear, a fatherhood test.

pelvis, a cousin of Elvis.

prophylactic, a person who favors birth control.

recovery room, place to do upholstery.

rectum, dang near killed ‘em.

secretion, hiding something.

seizure, famous Roman leader.

tablet, a small table.

terminal illness, getting sick at the airport.

tumor, more than one.

urine, opposite of “you’re out”.

vein, conceited.

—Source is unknown