2. Of, belonging to, or characteristic of a hominine or Homininae.
2. Essentially a classifying term relating to members of the genus Homo and especially of the species Homo sapiens: A human is a bi pedaling primate using a language and having the ability to make and to use complex tools.
3. Etymology: from Old French humain from Latin humanus.
Like homo, "person" (man, woman, child), this was related to Latin humus, "earth", and was used originally for "people" in the sense of "earthly beings" in contrast with the immortal gods.
2. Pertaining to that which is typical of people: Mark has a desire to be perfect; however, he now realizes that he has many of the same human weaknesses, problems, etc, that other men, women and children have.
An important human characteristic of a person is the humane treatment of people who are not as well-off as others.
Irrigation is the primary agricultural use of human waste in the developing world; however, frequently untreated human feces harvested from latrines is delivered to farms and spread as fertilizer.
Facing water shortages and escalating fertilizer costs, farmers in developing countries are using raw sewage to irrigate and fertilize nearly forty-nine million acres (20 million hectares) of cropland.
Some types of HPV are associated with tumors of the genital tract including, notably, cancer of the cervix.
Of the more than 100 types of HPVs, over 30 types can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact.
Most genital HPV infections come and go over the course of a few years; however, sometimes HPV infection may persist for many years, with or without causing cellular abnormalities.
The majority of HPVs produce warts on the hands, fingers, and even the face. Most of these viruses are innocuous, causing nothing more than cosmetic concerns. HPVs also can cause painful plantar warts; for example on the soles of the feet.
Several types of HPV, however, are confined primarily to the moist skin of the genitals, producing genital warts and increasing the risk for cancer of the cervix.
The most common forms of human papilloma viruses cause cervical cancer
In the United States, cervical carcinoma was once a leading cause of death for women under the age of sixty. Routine Pap smear testing by gynecologists have dramatically reduced the numbers because they are able to catch the pre-cancerous changes HPV causes in cervical cells at an early stage.
- Internationally, most of the world's women have no access to routine gynecological care and are rarely screened for any type of women's health problem.
- One result is that cervical carcinoma annually kills some 300,000 women worldwide.
- HPV is not solely transmitted through sexual contact.
- It is considerably more contagious than HIV, syphilis or gonorrhea, and can be spread through handshakes, toilet seats, and childbirth; if the transmitting individual has genital warts, which is the most common visual evidence of HPV infection.
- Human papilloma virus is so strong that it can not be blocked 100 percent even by proper condom use.
- Even married, monogamous women get infected with HPV, and can contract terminal cancer.
- Science and humanity should guide preventive policies; such as, with immunization vaccines, not by wishful thinking and moral absolutism.
2. The social and interpersonal relations between human beings.
Latin: (no equivalent goddess)
The human tongue and its functions
About the only interest a person has in the tongue is when something abnormal happens; such as, when there is pain or if some unusual taste factor exists as when there is burning from excessive heat, when accidentally bitten, or when exposed to strong flavors which are spicy, bitter, sweet, sour, etc.
Since the human tongue usually stays out of sight, it is is not considered as valuable as other sensory parts of the body, but if people think they can get along without their tongues, they should re-evaluate this misconception.
For example, when a person extends the tongue out of the mouth and lightly clamps on it between the teeth, then if that person tries to talk, let him/her see if speech under such circumstance can be understood.
A tongue is particularly important with the mastication, or chewing, of food by rolling it around in the mouth so such materials are evenly broken up and made more acceptable to the stomach for digestion. A tongue assists in swallowing when the front part presses against the hard palate in the roof of the mouth. This is followed by having the back part of the tongue hump up, thrusting food into the passage that leads to the esophagus.
Although it may seem to be a simple activity, it is really a necessary function that is conducted by nerves and executed by intricate muscles. A person usually knows how to swallow before being born, which is an indication of how important the swallowing reflex is to one's existence.
Speaking is another consideration because a person must be trained for such extraordinary neuromuscular activities. A baby normally experiments with sounds for two, or more, years before being able to form simple sentences. As people get older, the tongue is able to flex itself into many various shapes for more complex expressions.
Anyone who would like to get a better idea of the tongue's complex activities should concentrate on its various movements while talking.
A slab of mucous membrane enclosing a complex array of muscles and nerves
The upper surface of the tongue has an array of papillae (puh PIL lee), or tiny projections, some of which contain taste buds. Also, arranged among the taste buds are taste cells, which actually receive the sensations of taste.
On the underside of the tongue is a tiny cord, the frenulum, and if it is too short, it holds back normal movements which is known as being "tongue-tied". People with this problem once went through their lives with garbled speech; however, today, this defect can be corrected with surgery.
The tongue is an organ that gives people a great deal of service but too often it is held in low esteem. Normally, people pay less attention to the tongue than they do to their hair or fingernails which are not nearly as important to their well-being.
Despite such neglect, the tongue usually continues to tirelessly function as it tastes and talks throughout our lives.
More facts about the tongueThe tongue has about 10,000 taste receptors.
- They are called taste buds, but "taste hairs" would be a more accurate name in that these receptors project like hairs from the walls of the tiny trenches that run between the bumps on your tongue.
- When you eat, the receptors send signals to the brain, which translates the signals into combinations of sweet, bitter, salty, and sour tastes.
- Soon after birth, more buds begin to grow, an by early childhood they cover the top and some of the bottom of the tongue, as well as areas in the cheeks and throat.
- Since young children have many more taste buds blooming in their mouths than adults, they frequently find foods to be too bitter or too spicy.
- Some adults seek out bitter or spicy foods because of a declining number of taste buds.
- In children and adults, each taste bud lives a matter of days before it is replaced.
- The four primary tastes; such as, sweet, bitter, salty, and sour, are each associated with a specific area on the tongue.
- The tip of the tongue is most sensitive to sweet and salty tastes, while sour seems to register more strongly on the sides of the tongue.
- Far to the rear of the tongue, grouped in a V-shape, are most of the receptors for bitter tastes.
- The sense of smell, with its own separate receptors, mostly determines what we experience as taste.
- The temperature and texture of food also contribute to its overall flavor.
- Oddly one's sensitivity to saltiness and bitterness seems to increase as food cools, sensitivity to sweetness increases with heat.
- A piece of chocolate may have very little taste when cold, taste fine at room temperature, but seem unpleasantly sweet when hot and half-melted.