2. The study of sin; it's origin, nature, extent, and consequences.
The "sin" word that is used most frequently in the Bible is hamartia, "missing the mark".
It is the most comprehensive term for explaining sin. The Apostle Paul used the verb hamartano when he wrote, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23).
God has a high and holy standard of what is right, and so long as man follows the Divine standard he will see himself as he truly exists in God’s eyes.
The flat statement of the Almighty is that all men have fallen far short of God’s required standard. It is the popular and common practice of men to create their own standards; however, God has established His standard of perfection for entry into Heaven, and all men have "missed the mark".
God is not cruel and compassionless. He tells us that we “all have sinned,” all have missed the mark, and that if we confess to this fact, admitting that we have sinned, He will forgive and cleanse our sin and guarantee salvation in time and for eternity by accepting Jesus Christ as savior; and not by our "good works".
Man's original sin was disobedience to the command of God not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Genesis 2:17, 3:6).
Sin brought shame and recognition of guilt (Genesis 3:10) and curses upon the man, woman, and the earth (Genesis 3:15-19).
Adam's sin brought consequences upon all men, spiritual death and physical death (Genesis 2:17; Ephesians 2:1; Romans 5:12-14), and an inherited sinful nature (Romans 5:12-21; Ephesians 2:3).
Man is also an individual sinner (Romans 3:9-12, 23, 5:12); therefore, man in his condition is unable to produce a righteousness that will give him merit in God's eyes (total depravity) (Romans 3:23; John 3:19). This does not mean man is as evil as he could be for he can get worse (Matthew 7:11).