2. The physical features of a region, area, or place; usually, the surface features.
3. The science that deals with the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humans.
4. The scientific study of the earth, including its composition, structure, physical properties, and history.
Geology is commonly divided into subdisciplines concerned with the chemical makeup of the earth, including:
- The study of minerals (mineralogy) and rocks (petrology).
- The structure of the earth (structural geology) and volcanic phenomena (volcanology).
- Landforms and the processes that produce them (geomorphology and glaciology).
- The geologic history, including the study of fossils (paleontology).
- The development of sedimentary strata (stratigraphy).
- The evolution of planetary bodies and their satellites (astrogeology).
- Economic geology and its various branches; such as, mining geology and petroleum geology.
- Also, some major fields closely allied to geology are geodesy, geophysics, and geochemistry.
Plant geography has emphasized the mapping of such regions and the interpretation of the terms of environmental (ecological) influences.
The areas of Phytogeography and zoogeography do not necessarily exist together in the same place, because there are barriers and factors that affect their growth and arrangements which are often different for plants and for animals.
- Almanac of Geography by National Geographic; Washington, D.C.; 2005.
- Introduction to Historical Geology; by Raymond C. Moore; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.; New York; 1958.
- Physical Geology by Anatole Dolgoff; Houghton Mifflin Company; Boston, Massachusetts; 1998.
- Volcanoes and Earthquakes by Jon Erickson; Tab Books, Inc.; Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania; 1987.
- World Explorers and Discoverers; Edited by Richard E. Bohlander; MacMillan Publishing Company; New York; 1992.