This creates a surrounding system of mineral-rich water that helps to support a distinctive type of ecosystem not found in typical cold-water environments at the same ocean depth.
By comparison, the biomass at great depths is less than one gram per square meter (3.28 feet); there, the populations are less dense, although the diversity of species is greater.
Compare this to the rate in the Pacific, where they separate at a speed of 18 centimeters (7 inches) per year; which is about twenty-five times faster.
4. Average depth of the Pacific, the deepest and largest of all oceans: 4,188 meters (13,740 feet or 2.60 miles).
By itself, it represents nearly half of the expanse of water on earth.
- An Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life by James L. Sumich; Wm. C. Brown Publishers; Dubuque, Iowa; 1988.
- Marine Ecology by Jeffrey S. Levinton; State University of New York at Stony Brook; Prentice-Hall Inc.; Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; 1982.
- The Silent Deep by Tony Koslow; The University of Chicago Press; Chicago; 2007.