2. The branch of technology concerned with modern forms of industrial production utilizing living organisms, especially micro-organisms, and their biological processes; including such ancient endeavors as the use of yeast in preparing bread for baking, and such modern concepts as genetic engineering.
3. The application of technology to biological processes for industrial, agricultural, and medical purposes.
Examples include bacteria; such as, Penicillium and Streptomycin are used to produce antibiotics and fermenting yeasts produce alcohol in beer and wine manufacture.
Genetic engineering now enables the large-scale production of hormones, blood serum proteins, and other medically important products.
Genetic modification of farm crops offers improved protection against pests, or products with novel characteristics; such as, new flavors, colors, or extended storage properties.