2. The commercial development of naturally occurring biological materials; such as, plant substances or genetic cell lines, by a technologically advanced country or organization without fair compensation to the peoples or nations in whose territory the materials were originally discovered.
The patenting of plants, genes, and other biological products that are indigenous to a foreign country; for example, some developing tropical nations are saying that if the West cries foul over piracy of intellectual property or computer software, then biopiracy in Western labs of jungle extracts should also be considered a high economic crime.
Biopiracy usually refers to the privatization and unauthorized use of biological resources by entities (including corporations, universities, and governments) outside of a country that has pre-existing knowledge. This privatization and use is sometimes claimed to be predatory. Particular activities usually covered by the term are: Exclusive commercial rights to plants, animals, organs, microorganisms, and genes; as well as, commercialization of traditional communities' knowledge on biological resources; and patenting of biological resources.
Here is a biopiracy article that presents an example of this topic.