-sion, -sions

(Latin: a suffix found at the end of some words that make certain verbs become nouns.)

If you need any information regarding the pronunciation system being used for the words in this unit, click on this Pronunciation Chart for a presentation of simplified American-English pronunciations.

expulsion (ik SPUHL shuhn) (s) (noun), expulsions (pl)
1. The act of suspending someone from an institution or activity on a temporary or permanent basis as a result of bad or poor conduct: Larry’s parents were very upset when they received notice that their son's bad behavior towards his classmates in school resulted in his expulsion for a week from the school.
2. An occasion of officially forcing a person to leave a nation, mainly because of breaking the rules and regulations or for political reasons: Ted's country decided on the expulsion of the diplomats after having severe issues with their governments.
3. The procedure of forcefully pushing something out of the body or out of a container: Jack was very sick and after the expulsion of the contents of his stomach, he felt much better.

Maxine had too many old messages in her e-mail server which were overloading it; so, she spent a great deal of time making expulsions which made it possible for her computer to function more efficiently.

extension (ik STEN shuhn) (s) (noun), extensions (pl)
1. The act of enlarging, expanding, or the condition of being increased: The extension of the freeway made it possible for people to drive directly to their destination and not have to travel through all the little towns on the country road.
2. The degree, range, or amount to which something can be stretched: The extension of the rubber band was just right to put around the package.
3. The act of straightening, lengthening, or positioning part of one's body: The seamstress measured the extension of June’s arms in order to know how long the sleeves of the dress should be.
4. In medicine, the application of traction to a fractured or damaged limb in order to restore it back to its normal location: After the accident during which Tom’s leg had been broken, the doctor used an extension in order to allow it to heal properly.
5. An addition that increases the area, influence, operation, or contents of something: They built a new extension on the hospital so it could accommodate more patients.
6. An extra telephone which is joined to the main line: Nils has an extension in his home office where he can make phone calls pertaining to his job without disturbing his family.
7. An allowance of extra time, as for the repayment of a debt: Jerome really appreciated the bank's agreement to give him an extension of the repayment of the loan that he owed.
8. A program in a university, college, or school that offers classes by television or correspondence, to people who are unable to attend during the usual time or in a regular place: There are possibilities of studying for a college degree by providing extensions of courses at institutions of higher learning via the internet.
9. Additional time that is allowed for accomplishing something: Sam asked his supervisor for an extension of the deadline that was designated so he can successfully complete the project that was assigned to him.
extraversion (EK struh vuhr" zhuhn) (s) (noun), extraversions (pl)
A psychological term that indicates someone who finds it essential to have as many friendships with others as possible: Extraversion is a condition in which someone prefers being with and socializing with people as often as possible, rather than being isolated from their companionships.

The contents of this extraversion entry also applies to the extroversion entry; in other words, they are synonymous with each other or one means the same thing as the other one.

extroversion (EK stroh vuhr" zhuhn) (s) (noun), extroversions (pl)
An interest in and a significant involvement with other people by being friendly and outgoing and taking advantage of having as many cordial relations with them whenever there is an opportunity to do it: Ted's extroversion apparently makes him a good public relations officer.

The contents of this extroversion entry also applies to the extraversion entry; in other words, they are synonymous with each other or one means the same thing as the other one.

extrusion (ik STROO zhuhn) (s) (noun), extrusions (pl)
1. Squeezing out by applying pressure: There was an unexpected extrusion of toothpaste from the bottom of the tube.

Grace turned a bottle upside down and suddenly an extrusion of ketchup spilled out onto her plate.

2. Something that bulges out, is protuberant, or projects from a form: Little Timmy wondered about the extrusion of his mother’s tummy; so, she told him that she was pregnant and was expecting a baby girl!
3. Something formed by forcing semisoft material through a specially shaped mold or nozzle: An extrusion takes place when a partly finished length of metal is thrust through a die to create a metal object; such as, a rod or a pipe.
4. An igneous rock formed by the emission of molten material or magma through cracks in the earth's surface where it forms a lava flow and solidified igneous rock: At the museum of natural history, the group of students were shown pieces of extrusions which exist in certain outer layers of the earth.
hyperextension (hi" puhr ik STEN shuhn) (s) (noun), hyperextensions (pl)
The elongation of an arm or leg more than it’s normal size and which may cause injury: While exercising in the fitness studio, Jack overdid it, hurt himself badly, and later found out from his doctor that his elbows were in a state of hyperextension which was why he was feeling such pains.
hypertension (high" pur TEN shuhn) (s) (noun), hypertensions *pl)
1. Any abnormally intense anxiety or stress: Sometimes teachers are very nervous trying to meet all the demands of the students, their parents, other teachers, and the principal; all of which can cause a state of hypertension.
2. Unusually high blood pressure; especially, in the arteries, or a diseased condition of which this is the chief symptom: Some people who are overweight are in a greater risk of certain illnesses, among them are diabetes and hypertension, which in itself can cause further disabilities and illnesses.
hypotension (high" poh TEN shuhn) (s) (noun), hypotensions (pl)
The medical term for low blood pressure: There are some healthy people who have a normal hypotension of their heart and blood vessels which are well below the average for their ages.

Hypotension is usually indicated when the blood pressure has fallen to such a degree that the blood flow to the brain is reduced, causing dizziness and fainting.

—Compiled from information located in
The American Medical Association Home Medical Encyclopedia;
Volume One; Random House; New York; page 561.
illusion (i LOO zhuhn) (s) (noun), illusions (pl)
1. A deception; a false, although often pleasant, notion; a misconception: The illusions of youth fade with maturity.
2. Semblance, a misleading visual impression; hallucination, false image: Mirrors give an illusion of more space in a room.
3. An imaginary appearance of something that seems to be real or which seems to exist: While he was sleeping, Sam had the illusion in his dream that he was a muscle man at a fitness studio and was so strong that the exercise equipment was breaking apart as he used each one.
4. The fact or condition of being deceived or fooled by appearances: A handsome face can be an illusion which disguises a mean personality.
5. A mental state involving the attribution of reality to what is unreal: Norbert was under the illusion that he was living in a castle as a king.

Troy had the illusion that his girlfriend was floating above his bed!

6. Etymology: "act of deception", from Old French illusion, "a mocking"; from Latin illusionem, illusio, "a mocking, a jesting, an irony"; from illudere, "to mock at"; literally, "to play with", from in-, "at" + ludere, "to play".

A pleasant illusion is better than a harsh reality.

—Christian Nestell Bovee
A false idea or conception; an unreal, deceptive, or misleading appearance.
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immersion (i MUHR zhuhn) (s), immersions (pl) (nouns)
1. An involvement in something that completely occupies all of one's time, energy, or concentration: Gerald was in an immersion regarding an important project at work that had to be done in a short time.

Tom and his colleagues have been in an immersion of scientific research about the bad water that has been distributed by the local government and causing many people to become very sick.

2. A method of teaching a language that involves the instructor and the students using the foreign language all the time: Greg and his classmates were in a series of immersions everytime they were together while they were learning French.
3. The dipping of something into a liquid so it is completely covered or below the surface: When Clara's grandmother washed clothes, at a time before washing machines were available, she used the system of immersions by putting them into and out of the soapy water and again to rinse them in clean water.

Little Sammy was using an immersion, or plunging, of a toy duck into his tub while he was taking his bath.

When Frank went deep-sea diving, he obviously was experiencing total immersions underwater.

implosion (im PLOH zhuhn) (s) (noun), implosions (pl)
The bursting inward of a vessel or structure from external pressure that is greater than the internal pressure: The very old building was collapsing and the city officials decided to use the method of implosion to completely destroy it, so the walls would fall towards the center.
imprecision (im" pri SIZH uhn) (s) (noun), imprecisions (pl)
1. Neither exact nor accurate: Jane’s imprecision, or lack of following the cake directions,  resulted in the pastry not rising in the oven because she forgot the baking powder!
2. Not well-defined; vague: Because of the imprecision of Tom’s answer, Mrs. Smith couldn’t accept it as correct due to the ambiguous and hesitating manner of his responses.
impression (im PRESH uhn) (s) (noun), impressions (pl)
1. A feeling or an idea which is formed without thinking about it very much: After writing his first short story, James asked his friend to read it and give his first impressions and comments about it.

Ted’s parents had a very good impression about his new girlfriend who seemed to be very friendly and courteous to them.

2. A visible representation of an item or of somebody, as in a picture: The police asked the robbery victim to give his impression of the culprit so they could try to find and arrest him or her.
3. A marking which is imprinted on the outside of something: Jane thought that the impressions of the cartoons on the coffee cups at the restaurant were very amusing.
4. The formation that is made of the teeth by having them pressed into a soft material: While Nils was at his dentist, there was an impression made of his dentures in preparation for the new tooth which was missing.
5. An effect or influence that something or someone has on another person's thoughts or feelings: First impressions are important; however, they can be misleading and inadequate for knowing what is really true.

The saleswoman's pleasantness and cheerfulness always left positive and lasting impressions on her customers.

impulsion (im PUHL shuhn) (s) (noun), impulsions (pl)
A powerful desire to do something: Raymond felt an impulsion to sing and dance throughout the night because he was so happy that Jane wanted to marry him!
incision (s) (in SIZH uhn) (noun), incisions (pl)
1. A cut into a body tissue or organ; especially, one that is made during surgery: Most incisions are done in order to gain access to a diseased organ so it can be repaired or removed.

Sometimes an incision is made to relieve pressure; such as, from pus that has been formed as a result of an infection in the tissue cells.

2. The fact or quality of being quick to understand or able to express something clearly: Paul was known in school for his incisions, as determined by his precise responses to his teachers’ questions.