extra, extra-, extro-, extr-, exter-

(Latin: beyond, outside, on the outside, outward, external)

ab extra; ab ex. (Latin phrase)
Translation: "From the outside; from without."

The infection pervading in the hospital appears to have originated ab extra or ab ex..

ad extra (Latin phrase)
Translation: "To the outer."

In an outward direction.

ad extremum (Latin phrase)
Translation: "To the extreme."
exteriorly (adverb), more exteriorly, most exteriorly
Pertaining to how something is situated on the outside of a structure: The new museum was exteriorly constructed with modern walls and windows.
external (adjective), more external, most external
1. Relating to, situated on, or joined with the outer part of something: Rainwater is collected from the external surface of the roof of Jim's house and is saved in big barrels for watering his garden.
2. Appropriate for putting on the outside of items; such as, paint, etc.: Sharon decided to use varnish on the external part of the cabinet which she was renovating.
3. Suitable or designed for use only on the outside or surface of something, especially the body: The medicine in Troy's cabinet was divided into two small containers; one for external treatment and the other one for internal medication.
4. Existing outside the body and the mind: Some people think there might be alien or external beings which could invade the Earth!
5. Affecting or entering from the outside: There were too many external pressures in Harry's job which motivated him to apply for employment in another town.
6. Of or relating chiefly to outward appearance; superficial: Stacy's father told her, “Remember, darling, the external factors of a person are never so important as the internal values that a person holds and lives by."
7. Of or relating to foreign affairs or foreign countries: Some members of parliament appealed to Britain's minister of external affairs for aid in helping the refugees who were fleeing for their lives.
externality (s) (noun), externalities (pl)
1. Ancillary effects of production or consumption for which no internal cost is incurred, typically when the actions of firms and individuals have an effect on others than themselves: The externality of the pollution of a river negatively affects the health of people living downstream more than those who are responsible for releasing the harmful material into the water.
2. A process having a positive effect on another group of citizens: The externalities of an investment by a nation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions provides a more stable climate for other countries.
externally (adverb), more externally, most externally
Concerning how something is formed or placed on the outside of a surface of a building, structure, body part, etc.: Contact lenses are placed externally on the eyes and adjusted exactly for each outer part of the pupil and iris.
extra (adverb) (not comparative)
Characteristic of being beyond the usual size or amount: Jerry was warned by his mother that the roads were very slippery, so he should be extra careful while driving his car to work.
extra (adjective) (not comparable)
1. Pertaining to something that is more than usual or necessary: Mary had a sandwich with a lot of extra mayonnaise.

When Jack and Geraldine rented a room for the night, there was no extra charge for breakfast.

2. A reference to an item or device costing more or requiring additional payments: George was told that using the phone in his hotel room to make long distance calls would cost him extra money.
extra (s) (noun), extras (pl)
1. Anything that is added; especially, to make a product or service more appealing to customers: Karl found out that buying medicinal drugs via the internet has extras that are saving him a great deal of money.
2. Those who are hired to be part of a group: Hundreds of people, or extras, were hired to appear in a battle scene of a movie.
extracellular (adjective), more extracellular, most extracellular
Relating to very small structural units throughout the internal areas of the physical structure which are functionally integrated to perform infinite numbers of complex tasks that are necessary for life: Every anatomically little element is referred to as a cell and each one has an invisibly small bag containing a fluid material called cytoplasm, surrounded by an extracellular skin called the cell membrane.

The extracellular membrane of a cell consists of double layers of fatty materials and proteins that hold each one together.

Additional functions of the extracellular membranes involve the regulating of the passages of materials into and out of the cells which enable useful substances like nutrients and oxygen to enter them and waste materials like carbon dioxide and substances like hormones to leave them.

—Compiled from explanations about cells located in
The American Medical Association Home Medical Encyclopedia
Volume One, A-H; Medical Editor, Charles B. Clayman, MD;
Random House, Inc.; New York; 1989; page 247.
extracerebral (adjective) (no comparisons)
Pertaining to that which is taking place beyond or outside the brain but within the cranial cavity: When Joan went to her physician about her head injury, he told her that it was extracerebral, and so it should not cause any harm to her mental skills or her ability think.
extracorporeal (adjective), more extracorporeal, most extracorporeal
Descriptive of something that is occurring or is situated outside the body: An extracorporeal circulatory support unit can be a heart-lung machine, which is used primarily for animals during surgery.
extracurricular (adjective) (not comparable)
Pertaining to activities outside of the regular courses offered by educational institutions, or even outside of someone's everyday schedule: Larry's trips to the beach are extracurricular and have nothing to do with his biology class, as he claims.
Relating  to what is not part of the courses in college but is part of their lives.
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extraessential (s) (noun), extraessentials (pl)
That which goes beyond what is necessary: When packing her bag for the class trip to the mountains, Jackie put in extraessentials, which included her favorite things and more than what she needed, like lipstick, high heel shoes, etc.