-al; -ial, -eal

(Latin: suffix; pertaining to, like, of the kind of, relating to, characterized by, belonging to; action of, process of)

abdominal quadrants; left upper quadrant, left lower quadrant, right upper quadrant, right lower quadrant
Any of four topographic areas of the abdomen divided by two imaginary lines, one vertical and one horizontal, intersecting at the umbilicus (belly button) as determined from the front of the body.

The divisions are the left upper quadrant (LUQ), the left lower quadrant (LLQ), the right upper quadrant (RUQ), and the right lower quadrant (RLQ).

  • Left upper quadrant (LUQ): left lobe of liver, stomach, transverse colon, splenic flexure, pancreas, left kidney, and spleen.
  • Left lower quadrant (LLQ): small intesine, left ureter, sigmoid flexure, descending colon, bladder if distended, left spermatic duct in the male; left ovary and left tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
  • Richt upper quadrant (RUQ): right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of transverse colon, part of pylorus, hepatic flexure, right kidney, and duodenum.
  • Right lower quadrant (RLQ): cecum, ascending colon, small intestine, appendix, bladder if distended, right ureter, right spermatic duct in the male; right ovary and right tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
abdominal reflexes
Contraction of the muscles of the abdominal wall when the the overlying skin is stimulated by stroking or scratching or by tapping neighboring bony structures.

Lacking these reflexes indicates damage to the pyramidal tract or the projection neurones in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of the brain or two groups of nerve fibers that participate in the complex and delicate coordination of motor activity arising in the brain and passing down through the spinal cord to motor cells.

abdominal rescue
The emergency cesarean delivery of a fetus jeopardized during child labor or failed vaginal birth.

An indication for the need of surgical intervention include fetal distress (fetal hypoxia or low oxygen levels in the fetus) associated with dystocia (difficult or painful childbirth labor or delivery), arrested descent (interruption in the labor process), abruptio placentae (placenta prematurely separating from the wall of the uterus), or umbilical cord prolapse (slipping or falling out of place).

abdominal sponge
A flat sponge from 1/2 to 1 inch (1.27 to 2.54 cm) thick, 3 to 6 in. (7.62 to 15.24 cm) in diameter, used as packing to prevent closing or obstruction by intrusion of viscera, as a covering to prevent tissue injury, and as absorbents.
abdominal ultrasound test
An ultrasound test which provides accurate visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, biliary ducts, kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

This test is used to diagnose and locate cysts, tumors, calculi, and malformations; to document the progression of various diseases; and to guide the insertion of instruments during surgical procedures.

abdominal viscera
The internal organs contained or enclosed within the abdominal cavity, including the stomach, liver, intestines, spleen, pancreas, and parts of the urinary and reproductive tracts.
abdominal wall
1. The outer margins of the abdomen, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the pelvis.

Although its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the skiln, subcutaneous fat, deep fascia; abdominal muscles, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal peritoneum.

2. The lining of the abdomen, which consists partly of bone but mostly of muscle.

Several sets of muscles support and propel the torso or body; for example, the abdominal wall muscles help transfer force between the upper and lower body, and they also protect the delicate internal organs their most important function is to support the back.

The muscles of the torso extend in several directions and they help to maintain the posture and aid the spinal muscles when bending, twisting, and when doing other movements.

abdominogenital
A reference to the abdomen and the genital organs.
abdominoperineal, abdomino-perineal
Relating to both abdomen and perineum, as in abdominoperineal resection of the rectum.

The perineum is the region between the thighs; in the female between the vulva and the anus; in males, between the scrotum and the anus.

abdominoscrotal
Relating to the abdomen and the scrotum or the external sac (pouch, bag) of skin enclosing the male testes in most mammals.
abdominovaginal
Relating to both the abdomen and the vagina.
abdominovesical
Relating to the abdomen and urinary bladder, or to the abdomen and the gallbladder.
aberrational (adjective), more aberrational, most aberrational
Characterized by deviating or turning away from what is considered to be normal, usual, or expected; normally, something that is not welcome: The officials described the students' violence at the demonstration as an aberrational disagreement.
abiological (adjective) (not comparable)
A reference to the study of inanimate or non living things.
ableptical
Relating to, or a reference to, blindness or a lack of vision.