ad-

(Latin: prefix; to, toward, a direction toward, addition to, near, at; and changes to: ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at- when ad- is combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t)

The Latin element ad carries the idea of "in the direction of" and combines with many Latin words and roots to make common English words.

The form ad- appears in this form before a vowel and before the consonants d, h, j, m, and v. It is simplified to a- before sc, sp and st.

Before c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t; ad- is changed to ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, and at-.

In other words, the d of ad usually changes into the same letter as the first letter of the following root or word when it is a consonant: ad-fix becomes affix, and ad-sign becomes assign; therefore, making a double consonant.

Another example includes: attract as with ad-tract (drawn towards); so it has a double t. On the other hand when ad- precedes a vowel, as with adapt, it is simply ad-apt, with one d. For the same reason, there is only one d in adore and adumbrate, because ad- has combined with orare and umbra each of which starts with a vowel.

So, remember: since these Latin words begin with vowels and not consonants, the d of ad does not double as shown in the previous examples.

adapt
1. To make suitable by changing or adjusting; accommodate, assimilate, harmonize with, conform to: "The chameleon adapts to its surroundings by changing color."
2. To fit for a new use; transform, rework, convert, make suitable, modify, alter: "The drama was adapted from a short story."
3. To undergo modification so as to fit new circumstances or situations.
4. Etymology: from Latin adaptare, "to adjust" from ad-, "to" plus aptare, "to join" from aptus, "fitted".
adaxial
Nearest to or facing toward the axis of an organ or organism: "The upper side of a leaf is known as the adaxial surface."

Abaxial describes a plant part which is on the side or surface of an organ, facing away from the axis.

add
1. To find the sum of numbers or quantities: "They tried to add the total number of people."
2. To say in addition; to go on to say or write more: "She said good-by and added that she had a pleasant vistit."
3. To join one thing to another so as to increase the number, quantity, or the importance of something: "They decided to add a new wing to the house."
adde; add.
Let there be added.

Used in medicine meaning to "add".

addenda
1. Things to be added or those things which are already added.
2. The plural form of addendum (used with a singular verb), a list of things to be added: "The addenda in the back of the book consists of fifteen pages.
addendum (s) (noun); addenda, addendums (pl)
Something added or to be added; especially, a supplement to a book or magazine: An addendum may consist of a glossary or an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge which is usually published as an appendix to a text about that field.

After a recent investigation, the editor added several addenda to the soon-to-be published article about plagiarism in the field of journalistic ethics.

An addition or a supplement to a book.
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addict (s) (noun), addicts (pl)
1. A person who is overly engaged in his or her inclinations or desires to such a degree that it is impractical and can even be unhealthy: Susan loved her work so much and became so engaged in it that she became a real work addict, and did not have any extra time for her family or friends.
2. Someone who is obsessed by and devoted to the habitual and excessive use of a drug: Tim's friend was found to be a drug addict when his parents found cocaine hidden in his bedroom.

Why is it that drug addicts and computer enthusiasts are both called "users"?

  • Internet access has become a vital part of the modern world and an important tool in the education of children.
  • Like addiction to drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, or caffeine, internet addicts are showing symptoms of increasing tolerance, withdrawal, mood changes, and interruption of social relationships.
  • Children and adolescents who have become addicts of the internet often require increasing amounts of time online in order to feel satisfied.
  • When they do not have access to the internet, they may have symptoms of withdrawal, which include anxiety, depression, irritability, trembling hands, restlessness, and obsessive thinking or fantasizing about the internet.
  • Internet addiction is not limited just to introverted "computer-techies".
  • The internet can provide a welcome escape for individuals who already suffer from a variety of psychological difficulties; including, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem.
  • Additionally, those who have struggled with other types of addiction may more easily become obsessed with the internet.
—Compiled from excerpts in an article by
Macedonian Radio Television, MPT on-line, February 13, 2007.
addition (ad DISH uhn)
1. Something added; mathematical summation: "Addition is usually taught before subtraction."
2. Adding, including, embracing; joining, annexing, appending: "The addition of a baby to the household changed our lives."
3. Increase, enlargement, extra, augmentation: "The addition in cost over last year’s tuition is $500."
4. Annex, wing, extension, adjunct: "The addition to the town library will double its size."
adduct (verb), adducts; adducted; adducting
To draw inward toward the median axis of the body or toward an adjacent part or limb.
adductor (s) (noun), adductors (pl)
A muscle that draws any limb, or part of the body, towards the trunk or main axis, or which folds or closes extended parts of the body.
adept (adjective), more adept, most adept
1. Highly proficient or expert at something: Shirley is adept at organizational work in her community while her husband is adept in working with wood for shelves for their home.
2. Having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude: Erin was adept in writing her column in the newspaper every day.
3. Etymology: from Latin adeptus, "attained, achieved".
Very skillful and proficient.
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adequacy
1. Sufficient for a specific requirement or barely sufficient or satisfactory.
2: Lawfully and reasonably sufficient.
adequate
1. Sufficient in quality or quantity to meet a need or to qualify for something; enough for the situation or need.
2. Just barely sufficient in quality or quantity to meet a need or to qualify for something.
3. In law, reasonably sufficient for starting legal action; such as, they had adequate grounds for suing the hospital for incompetence.
4. Etymology: from Latin adæquatus, "equalized"; past participle of adæquare, "equalize"; from ad-, "to" + æquare, "to make level", from æquus.
adglutinate
A misspelling of agglutinate meaning to cause to adhere or to stick to, as with glue or causing red blood cells or bacteria to clump together.
adherable (adjective), more adherable, most adherable
1. Conveyed as being stuck together tightly to something as if by suction or with glue.
2. A reference to someone who sticks to an opinion, a practice, or a method.