ad-

(Latin: prefix; to, toward, a direction toward, addition to, near, at; and changes to: ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at- when ad- is combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t)

The Latin element ad carries the idea of "in the direction of" and combines with many Latin words and roots to make common English words.

The form ad- appears in this form before a vowel and before the consonants d, h, j, m, and v. It is simplified to a- before sc, sp and st.

Before c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t; ad- is changed to ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, and at-.

In other words, the d of ad usually changes into the same letter as the first letter of the following root or word when it is a consonant: ad-fix becomes affix, and ad-sign becomes assign; therefore, making a double consonant.

Another example includes: attract as with ad-tract (drawn towards); so it has a double t. On the other hand when ad- precedes a vowel, as with adapt, it is simply ad-apt, with one d. For the same reason, there is only one d in adore and adumbrate, because ad- has combined with orare and umbra each of which starts with a vowel.

So, remember: since these Latin words begin with vowels and not consonants, the d of ad does not double as shown in the previous examples.

adverse (ad VURS, AD vurs") (adjective), more adverse, most adverse
Relating to being opposed to or hostile to someone or something; unfavorable and negative: Adverse winds prevented the plane from arriving on time.

Adverse winds usually reduce the speed of sailing vessels.

When striving to achieve a worthy objective, everyone should try never to be discouraged by adverse criticism.

High interest rates are adverse to increasing the sales of houses.

Conflicting with and contrary to one's interests; unfortunate.
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adverse hydro (adjective), more adverse hydro, most adverse hydro
A description of water situations that are unfavorable to the generation of water power: Adverse hydro conditions; such as, low rainfall or snowfall, and the lack of runoff from mountains or hills, limits the production of hydroelectric power.
adversed
1. Created as unfavorable, undesirable, or harmful results.
2. Having acted with or characterized by opposition or antagonism; for example, adversed publicity.
3. Momentum that existed in a direction away from that which was desired.
4. In botany, a leaf or flower that faced the main stem.
5. Etymology: from Old French avers (Modern French adverse); from Latin adversus, "turned against"; therefore, "hostile"; past participle of advertere, from ad-, "to" + vertere, "to turn".
advertise
1. To publicize the qualities of a product, service, business, or event in order to encourage people to buy or to use it.
2. To publicize something; such as, a job opening or an item for sale.
advice (s) (noun), advices (pl)
1. An opinion, suggestion, or recommendation offered as a guide to action, conduct, etc.: William and Sharon decided to act on their father's advice and to get married.
2. An opinion about what could or should be done about a situation or problem; to give counsel: Since this is a legal matter, Mike was urged to get a lawyer’s advice before he got involved in the business deal.
4. Formal or official information about something; intelligence, news report: Advice from abroad indicates that war is about to begin.
5. Etymology: from Latin ad-, "to" + visum, past participle of videre, "to see".

Advice is what you get from your parents when you are growing up, and from your children when you are growing old.

—Evan Esar

It’s a pleasure to give advice, humiliating to need it, normal to ignore it.

—E.C. McKenzie
advise (ad VIGHZ) (verb), advises; advised; advising
1. To offer an opinion or a course of action; to counsel; to notify, to recommend: Sidney advised Jon to reconsider his decision to sell his car.
2. To inform, tell, notify, make known, communicate: Mary and Richard have been advised that the roads are too icy for the trip that they were planning to take.
3. Giving an opinion or suggestion to someone about what should be done: Shirley advises the President on foreign affairs.

Howard's lawyer is advising him about whether he should buy the house under such financial conditions.

4. Etymology: from Old French avis, "opinion"; which came from Old French ce m'est à vis, "it seems to me"; or from Vulgar (common) Latin mi est visum, "in my view"; and originally from Latin ad-, "to" + visum; past participle of videre, "to see".
advisedly (adverb), more advisedly, most advisedly
Relating to doing something with careful consideration and thoughtfulness: Jeremiah was advisedly cautioned by his therapist to take time off from work so he can recover from his back injury.
advocacy (s) (noun), advocacies (pl)
1. An active verbal support for a cause or political position, etc.: At the political convention, there was a lot of advocacy, or backing up, for the experienced and wise candidate for the office of U.S. President.
2. The act of speaking or writing, in support of something; such as, an idea, a cause, or a policy and giving active support: Jane’s advocacy for the local animal rights group helped convince the public to donate more money for saving the lives of stray animals.
advocate (AD vuh kayt") (verb), advocates; advocated; advocating
To urge, to suggest, or to exhort in support of someone or something: In court during the weekend, Karl's friend advocated for a former student who had been sleeping in the park.
To support or to publicly recommend.
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To speak in favor of a cause.
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To publicly agree with a statement.
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To strongly speak and recommend an issue or cause.
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affix (verb), affixes; affixed; affixing
1. To fasten, join, or attach (usually followed by "to"): Mary was affixing postage stamps to the envelopes that she was going to mail to her friends.
2. To put or to add on; to append: The salesman wanted Alice to affix her signature to the contract for the loan.

In grammar, a part of a word element that is affixed; such as, a prefix, infix, or suffix, added to a word element in order to form a different meaning; for example, the suffix, "-ed" added to "want" forms "wanted", or the prefix, "im-" connected to "possible" becomes "impossible".

When a poster is affixed to the wall, it is fastened to the wall.

aggression (uh GRESH uhn) (s) (noun), aggressions (pl)
1. A violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked: So many children in school have shown aggression and anger on the playground by hitting back when pushed accidentally by other children during a game.
2. Deliberately unfriendly behavior: Sometimes aggression is shown by some football fans when their team loses a game and they verbally attack the supporters of the winning side.
3. The act of initiating hostilities: Because Timmy wasn’t happy at home, he turned his aggression towards the other kids at school by pushing them, taking their ball away from them during a game, or calling them bad names.
4. A disposition to behave contentiously or offensively: James had a very unhappy childhood while he was living in a bad environment and so he expressed feelings of aggression when dealing with other people.
5. A feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack: A sensation of aggression developed in Jerry when he was falsely accused of stealing money from a woman's purse at a restaurant.
6. Etymology: from ad-, "to" + gradi, gressus, "to step"; from gradus, "a step".
append (verb) appends; appended; appending
1. To add extra information to something as a supplement; especially, to a document.
2. To add an authorized signature to a bill, or an official agreement, as a final part of the ratification or agreement process.
3. To attach, or to fasten, a thing to something else.
4. Etymology: "to hang on; to attach, as a pendant", from Latin appendere "to cause to hang (from something), to weigh"; from ad-, "to" + pendere, "to hang".
appendix (s) (noun); appendices, appendixes (pl)
A small out-pouching from the beginning of the large intestine (the ascending colon): The appendix was previously called the vermiform appendix because it was thought to be "wormlike".
Arbitrio suo. (Latin phrase)
Translation: "On his or her own authority."
aspect (s) (noun), aspects (pl)
1. A facet, phase, or part of a whole: People should consider the various aspects of the economic situation before making any significant investments.
2. The view of something to the mind or the eyes: Suddenly, the stone had a greenish aspect in the florescent light.
3. The way a person, place, or something appears: The old house took on a dark and lonely aspect or image.
4. Etymology: from Middle English, "indicating the action or the way of looking at or seeing something"; from Latin aspectus and aspicere, "to look at"; from ad-, "to" + specere, "to look".
A look or appearance like something.
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