Scientific Fields or Categories of Science Specialties

(lists of careers in science with short descriptions)

aeromechanics
The scientific study of air and other gases in motion or in equilibrium, including the two distinct branches of aerodynamics and aerostatics.
aerospace engineering (s) (noun), aerospace engineerings (pl)
The crafts or branches of sciences pertaining to the design and construction of aircraft and space vehicles and of power units, and dealing with the special problems of flight in both the earth's atmosphere and space; such as, in the flight of air vehicles and the launching, guidance, and control of missiles, earth satellites, and space vehicles and probes.
agricultural mechanics
Using principles of mechanics for agricultural purposes; such as, in the development of equipment including automated feed mixers and other machines.
agriculture, agronomy
A career in the production of plants and animals useful to humans, involving soil cultivation and the breeding and management of crops and livestock.
analytical chemistry
A vocation in the field of science and the art of determining the composition of materials in terms of elements and compounds that they contain.
anatomy (s) (noun), anatomies (pl)
1. The profession in science dealing with morphology which is concerned with the gross and microscopic structure of animals, especially humans.
2. The study of form, or the branch of science that studies the physical structure of animals, plants, and other organisms.
3. The physical structure; especially, the internal structure, of an animal, plant, or other organism, or of any of its parts.

Gross anatomy involves structures that can be seen with the naked eye. It is the opposite of "microscopic anatomy" (or histology) which involves structures seen under the microscope.

Traditionally, both gross and microscopic anatomy have been studied in the first year of medical school in the U.S. The most celebrated textbook of anatomy in the English-speaking world is Gray's Anatomy, still a useful reference book.

The word anatomy comes from the Greek ana-, "up" or "through" + tome, "a cutting". Anatomy was once a "cutting up" because the structure of the body was originally learned through dissecting it; that is, cutting it up.

atomic physics
A profession in the area of physics concerned with the scientific structures of the atom, the characteristics of the electrons and other elementary particles of which the atom is composed, the arrangement of the atom's energy states, and the processes involved in the radiation of light and x-rays.
biochemical field
A reference to the career field of science that deals with the chemical substances that occur in living organisms, the processes by which these substances enter in living organisms, the processes by which these substances enter into or are formed in the organisms and react with each other and the environment, and the methods by which the substances and processes are identified, characterized, and measured.
bioelectronics
1. The study of the role of intermolecular transfer of electrons in biological regulation and defense.
2. The science of electronic effect and control of living organisms.
biology
That livelihood in science dealing with living organisms, concerned with the study of embryology, anatomy, physiology, ctyology, morphology, taxonomy, genetics, evolution, and ecology.
biomechanics
1. The science concerned with the action of forces, internal or external, on the living body.
2. The study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms.
3. The study of body movements and of the forces acting on the musculoskeletal system.
4. The application of mechanics to the structures of living animals; especially, to the forces on the skeleton caused by the muscles, gravity, and resulting movements of the locomotor system.

Biomechanics is a curious blend of mechanical engineering and biology. It was born of the recognition that parts of a living organism may be viewed as mechanical devices to which engineering concepts; such as, fluid pressure, mechanical stress and friction can be applied.

New York Times, January 16, 1979.
biophysics career
A career in the hybrid science involved with the methods and ideas of physics and chemistry to study and to explain the structures of living organisms and the mechanics of life processes.
botany (s), botanies (pl) (nouns)
That vocational branch of biological science that embraces the study of plants and plant life, including algae; and it also deals with taxonomy, morphology, physiology, and other aspects of plant science:

While botany is the study of plants, it is divided into many areas including:

  • Plant taxonomy, a description of plants and their arrangements into classes.
  • Plant geography, the location of certain plants.
  • Plant ecology, studies of the relationships between plants and the environment.
  • Paleobotany, ancient plants.
  • Phytopathology, plant diseases.
  • Economic botany, how plants can be used as products.
  • Plant morphology, the physical structure of plants:
    • Physiology, the function of plant parts.
    • Cytology, the study of plant cells and their parts.
    • Anatomy and histology, the internal structure of plants.
building construction (s) (noun), building constructions (pl)
A business concerned with the art and business of assembling materials into living structures; especially, those designated for human occupancy.
chemical engineering (s) (noun); (usually no plural)
The career branch of engineering that deals with the development and applications of manufacturing processes; such as, refinery processes, which chemically convert raw materials into a variety of products, which is usually concerned with the design and operations of chemical plants and equipment to perform such projects.

The main science-word unit.


Related articles about science: "Science Race"; STEM, Part 1; STEM, Part 2.