tempo-, tempor-, temp-

(Latin: time, occasion)

Don't confuse this tempo- element with other words that refer to the temples; such as, the flattened sides of the forehead or the buildings used for religious worship or services. They simply have no connection with this element.

pro tempore, pro tem, p.t. (adjective, adverb)
1. At the present time but not permanently: A chairperson pro tem is someone who is pro tempore; that is, a person who will serve until a permanent chairperson is selected.
2. Etymology: from Latin, literally "for the time (being)."
spatiotemporal (adjective), more spatiotemporal, more spatiotemporal
Existing in both space and time: Spatiotemporal distance is measured by the duration it takes for light to reach a certain planet.
suo tempore (Latin term)
Translation: "At one's own time or at its own time."
supertemporal (adjective), more supertemporal, most supertemporal
That which is above time; transcending time: The supertemporal love of God is eternal and will never cease.
temper (s) (noun), tempers (pl)
1. A state of mind or emotions; a disposition: Karen has a calm, tranquil, and even temper both at home and at work.
2. Calmness of mind or emotions; composure: Jim never wanted to lose his temper; especially, when he was playing sports.
3. A tendency to become easily angry or irritable: Diane has a quick temper whenever she argues about politics.
4. An outburst of rage: After having a heated argument with his boss, Jack left in a fit of temper.
5. The degree of hardness and elasticity of a metal: The temper of steel is achieved by a special process.
6. Archaic: A middle course of action between extremes: In Ted's family, the mother was the temper between her children and their father when it came to making decisions about cleaning up the house.
7. Etymology: derived from Latin teperare, "to mix in proportion, to combine properly, to moderate"; from tempous, genitive of temparis, "time".
temper (verb), tempers; tempered; tempering
1. To modify by the addition of a moderating element; to moderate: The teacher tempered her criticism of Tom's essay with a few words of encouragement.
2. To bring to a desired consistency, texture, hardness, or other physical condition by or as if by blending: In order to have the right color for painting his picture, Tim tempered it with some oil to make the consistency and color better.
3. To harden or to strengthen metal or glass by an application of heat or by heating and cooling: In order to make the horseshoes for his customers, the blacksmith at the outdoor museum had to temper the steel in order to hammer it to the correct size.
4. To strengthen through experience or hardship; to toughen: There are soldiers who have been tempered by combat.
5. To adjust finely, to attune: Mark developed a portfolio that is tempered to the investor's needs and desires.

Etymology: from Middle English temprien, tempren, from Old English temprian, "to moderate, to regulate, to mingle", and Old French temprer (French temperer), which both derive from Latin temperare, "to mix in due proportion, to combine properly, to moderate, to regulate", probably from temper-, a variant of tempor- stem of tempus, "time, pertaining to time, a season".

temperable (adjective), more temperable, most temperable
Regarding the ability of a stringed instrument to be adjusted to pitch: Jill asked the piano tuner if her musical instrument was still temperable, or able to be tuned, since it was quite old.
temperament (s) (noun), temperaments (pl)
1. The manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting which is characteristic of a specific person; such as, a nervous disposition: Janet had a very optimistic temperament, or mood, and sang while she was in the shower after she had slept well and it was the weekend!
2. Excessive irritability or sensitiveness: Henry was an actor with excessive irritability or temperament because he resented any suggestions from the director.
3. According to medieval physiology, the physical and mental mannerisms or personalities of a person are caused by one of the four humors: In her history class concerning the Middle Ages, Sharon learned about the temperament of people’s behavior being dominated by or issuing from their normal bodily functions in relationship to blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.
4. Etymology: existing since about 1412, "proportioned mixture of elements", from Latin temperamentum, "proper mixture"; from temperare, "to mix".

In medieval theory, it meant a combination of qualities (hot, cold, moist, dry) that determined the nature of an organism; this was extended to a combination of the four humors (sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, and melancholic) that made up a person's characteristic disposition.

The general sense of "habit of mind, natural disposition" is from 1821; then temperamental, "of or pertaining to temperament" appeared in about 1646; and in the sense of "moody" it is recorded from about 1907.

What people are trying to get at when they use the word temperament is something along the lines of instinct; how someone approaches a situation and particularly how someone approaches a crisis.

—Beverly Gage, Yale University; as seen in
"What Kind of Temperament is Best?" by Nancy Gibbs; TIME;
October 27, 2008; page 40.
temperamental (adjective), more temperamental, most temperamental
1. Relating to one's basic character: The students worked well together on the project despite their temperamental differences because they respected each other very much.
2. Excessively sensitive or irritable; moody: Some excellent conductors of orchestras tend to be quite temperamental because they get very excited or highly irritated during a rehearsal before a concert.
3. Likely to perform unpredictably, undependable: Rodney wasn’t sure if he should drive his car since it had a temperamental motor and it might break down on his way back home after the concert.
temperance (s) (noun), temperances
1. Moderation and self-restraint, as in behavior or expression: Dr. Jones told Jim that adhering to the new diet to lose weight required temperance in eating a balanced diet and the amounts should be sensible and not in excess.
2. Restraint in the use of or abstinence from alcoholic liquors: At first, temperance in the U.S. encouraged moderation in drinking, but it turned out to be prohibited entirely and finally this constitutional amendment was repealed in 1933.
3. Etymology: from Latin temperare, "to restrain oneself", which has come through into the derivatives temperance and temperate.
temperate (TEMP uh ruht) (adjective), more temperate, most temperate
1. Pertaining to self-control and the avoidance of extremes: Geraldine learned to eat and to drink in a temperate manner.
2. Conveying forbearance in degree or quantity; restrained: The football coach presented temperate criticism when his players were participating in their games.
3. Characterized by average temperatures in weather or climate; neither hot nor cold: Lewis was very pleased with the temperate summer he was having in his area.
temperately (adverb), more temperately, most temperately
Characterizing a thrifty manner and avoidance of overindulgence: At the party Bob indulged temperately in the many delicious and tasty cheeses that were presented as the appetizer for the main course.
temperateness (s) (noun) (no plural)
1. Descriptive of average weather and so appropriate for activities outside: During the temperateness of the summer, Albert's family enjoyed going swimming every day while camping next to the lake.
2. Marked by reserve or judiciousness that is imposed upon oneself: Jill’s temperateness or discipline proved to be her asset at work because it resulted in her boss complimenting her quite often.
temperature (s) (noun), temperatures (pl)
1. A reference as to how hot or cold something or someone is: Jane’s mother measured her temperature because she thought she had the flu and was shivering.
2. Denoting the coldness or heat regarding excitement: After the political survey was completed, the temperature of the feelings of the opposing politicians in connection with the next election was very obvious.
tempered (adjective) (no comparatives)
1. Marked by having a specific disposition: From the very beginning, little Finn has been a very sweet-tempered little boy.
2. Relating to something that is made hard or flexible by using heat: In order to have his house as secure as possible, Mike Smith wanted to have tempered glass windows, which was supposed to be nonbreakable, and a heavy security door installed.