arithmo-, arith-

(Greek: number)

arithmancy, arithmomancy, arithomancy (s) (noun); arithmancies, arithmomancies, arithomancies (pl)
Divination, or predicting, with numerology; as practiced by Greeks and Chaldeans: The Greeks would use arithmomancy to analyze the names of their warring enemies in order to determine their numerical values, and with this process, they thought they could predict the results of battles.

The Chaldeans divided their alphabet into three sections of seven letters and made a symbolic link to the seven planets to determine various arithmomancies which included numerical values of countries, individuals, and situations; all of which represented certain characteristics used for predicting future events.

arithmocracy (s) (noun), arithmocracies (pl)
A form of government in which governmental power results from the group that holds the numerical majority in a state: An arithmocracy can be a good form of government, or it can have negative results, depending on whether there is a balance between arithmocratic rule and individual liberty.

If an arithmocracy wanted to do away with criticism of the government with the hope of assuring national harmony, should the government get by with passing a law forbidding the media or private citizens from openly challenging all governmental decisions?

arithmocratic (adjective), more arithmocratic, most arithmocratic
A reference to being ruled by the numerical majority of a population: Someone has stated that any merely arithmocratic government does not provide a fair representation for the more educated part of the population nor for the more experienced minority, and so it may leave the conduct of governmental affairs to the uneducated and inexperienced multitudes.
arithmogram (s) (noun), arithmograms (pl)
A number expressed by the letters of a word, name, or phrase; for example, the number 666 made up of certain Greek letters: When writing a coded letter, Kevin, the spy, used the technique of arithmograms by using numbers instead of letters.
arithmograph (s) (noun), arithmographs (pl)
A kind of a numeric crossword puzzle that instead of filling in the rows and columns with words, certain digits must be found that give numbers which fit the equations: The math class was challenged to complete the arithmographs that were presented by the teacher, Mr. Jones.
arithmography (s) (noun), arithmographies (pl)
Representing a number with letters that have numerical values: Hank was always looking for more arithmographies to work on because he was so interested in working mathematical puzzles.
arithmomania (s) (noun), arithomanias (pl)
A compulsive desire to count objects and to make calculations: Mike's cousin had a disorder, known as arithmomania, that resulted in his counting each time when one of his feet touched the ground or sidewalk when he was walking, or as he used the steps in a staircase, etc.
Arithmometer (s) (noun), Arithmometers (pl)
A mechanical calculator that could add and subtract directly and perform long multiplications and divisions effectively by using movable accumulators for the results: Patented in France by Thomas de Colmar in 1820 and manufactured from 1851 to 1915, Arithmometers were the first known commercially successful mechanical calculators.

The Arithmometer was a significant contributor to the transformation from human computers to calculating machines that took place during the second half of the 19th century.

When the production of the Arithmometer started in 1851, it launched the mechanical calculator industry which built millions of machines well into the 1970s.

For almost forty years, from 1851 to 1887, the Arithmometer was the only type of mechanical calculator in commercial production which was sold all over the world.

—Compiled from information located at Wikipedia, the free enchclopedia.
arithmophobia (s) (noun), arithmophobias (pl)
Some fears of particular numbers, such as the number thirteen: There are some people who have arithmophobias about the tendencies of some organizations to label things by numbers instead of with alphabetical names.
arithmophobiac (s) (noun), arithmophobiacs (pl)
A person who has an abnormal fear of numbers in general or of specific numbers: There are some arithmophobiacs who are extremely afraid of the the number 13.
logarithmancy (s) (noun), logarithmancies (pl)
1. Divination, or the art of prophecy by supernatural means, with mathematical logarithms (mathematical notations indicating the number of times quantities can be multiplied by themselves): The fortune teller used logarithmancy as her technique for determining future events.
2. Etymology: from New Latin logarithmus; from Greek logos, "reason, proportion" + Greek arithmos, "number".