You searched for: “chromosome
chromosome (s) (noun), chromosomes (pl)
1. Any of the threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell that function in the transmission of genetic information.

Each chromosome consists of a double strand of DNA attached to proteins called histones.

The genes, which contain the genetic material that controls the inheritance of traits, are arranged in a linear pattern along the length of each DNA strand.

Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each somatic cell. In humans, there are forty-six chromosomes, including twenty-two homologous pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.

One member of each pair is derived from each parent.

2. Etymology: from German Chromosom, coined in 1888 by the German anatomist, Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz (1836-1921), from Greek khroma, "color" + soma, "body". This term was coined because the structures contain a substance that stains readily with basic dyes.
Word Entries containing the term: “chromosome
chromosome analysis
A laboratory procedure that isolates the chromosome pairs so they may be visualized.
chromosome coil
The spiral formed by the coiling of two or more chromonemata (coiled mass of threads visible within a nucleus at the start of cell division) in a chromosome.
chromosome karyotype test
A blood test used to study an individual's chromosome makeup to determine chromosomal defects associated with disease or the risk of developing disease.

It is useful in evaluating congenital anomalies, mental retardation, and delayed puberty as well as in the prenatal diagnosis of serious congenital diseases; such as, Klinefelter syndrome and Down syndrome and other suspected genetic disorders.

chromosome mapping
The process of determining the position of specific genes on specific chromosomes and constructing a diagram of each chromosome showing the relative positions of the genes.
chromosome painting
An attachment of certain fluorescent dyes to targeted parts of the chromosome.

Used as a diagnostic for particular diseases; for example, types of leukemia.

chromosome puff
A band of accumulated chromatin located at a specific site on a giant chromosome.

It is indicative of gene activity; specifically, DNA and RNA synthesis at that site.

Such bands appear at certain chromosomal locations within a given tissue at specific developmental states in insects and are significant in the study of the mode of genetic transmission.