You searched for: “and
an, and
an (AN) (adjective)
One, each: This is an excellent report.
and (AND) (conjunction)
Also, plus: Arthur ate a peach and a pear for his snack.

The dietician said Keith should eat an apple every day and at least one banana.

More possibly related word entries
Units related to: “and
(confusion exists about usage of "a" and "an" in front of other words)
(Latin: armpit; angle; borrowed directly from Latin ala which meant both "wing" and "the hollow under a wing or an arm")
(combining "biology", "mechanics", and "electronics")
(Greek: pupil of the eye; kore, literally, "girl" to mean both "doll" and "pupil of the eye")
(a journal entry about special topics regarding "brain strain" and "hypersomnia")
(combinations of "mechanical" and "electronics")
(Latin: valere, to be strong, to be well, to be worth; strong; power, strength; and "fare well" [go with strength])
(owls come in several shapes and sizes)
(history of how, when, and why hundreds of words have entered the English language)
(Greek > Latin: suffix; from French -aque, or directly from Latin -acus, from Greek -akos forming adjectives. This suffix was used to form names of arts and sciences in Greek and it is now generally used to form new names of sciences in English; meanings, "related to, of the nature of, pertaining to, referring to")
(the study and applications of sound)
(eating grasshoppers, locusts, and related insects)
(Latin: prefix; to, toward, a direction toward, addition to, near, at; and changes to: ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at- when ad- is combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t)
(Latin: suffix; forming nouns and verbs; an action done; the product of or a result of some kind of material or a process of doing something)
(Greek > Latin: from ager to agri and agrarius, of the land; land, fields)
(Greek: beach, seashore; and also a cliff)
(Greek: true; nothing concealed; real [from a-, "no, nothing" and letho-, "forgetfullness, oblivion"])
(Greek: ; beginning, first of anything; first letter of the Greek alphabet; used in physics and chemistry to designate a variety of series or values)
(Latin: aluminum [U.S.] and aluminium, [British])
(Latin: love, loving; fondness for; such as a man for a woman and a woman for a man)
(Greek: sand; used primarily in botany and zoology)
(Greek > Latin: @ two-handled; a vessel with two handles or ears; a pitcher or vase)
(the importance of Latin and Greek in the development of English as revealed in the history of English)
(an etymological approach to learning more about English words; especially, those from Latin and Greek origins)
(two separate units where one is dealing with phobias and the other one presents manias)
(index of links to a vast number of words with illustrations)
(reconstruction of blood vessels damaged by disease or injury usually performed by inflating a balloon inside the blood vessel lumen (tube) in order to reconstitute the flow of blood)
(reconstruction of blood vessels damaged by disease or injury usually performed by inflating a balloon inside the blood vessel lumen (tube) in order to reconstitute the flow of blood)
(reconstruction of blood vessels damaged by disease or injury usually performed by inflating a balloon inside the blood vessel lumen (tube) in order to reconstitute the flow of blood)
(reconstruction of blood vessels damaged by disease or injury usually performed by inflating a balloon inside the blood vessel lumen (tube) in order to reconstitute the flow of blood)
(reconstruction of blood vessels damaged by disease or injury usually performed by inflating a balloon inside the blood vessel lumen (tube) in order to reconstitute the flow of blood)
(reconstruction of blood vessels damaged by disease or injury usually performed by inflating a balloon inside the blood vessel lumen (tube) in order to reconstitute the flow of blood)
(reconstruction of blood vessels damaged by disease or injury usually performed by inflating a balloon inside the blood vessel lumen (tube) in order to reconstitute the flow of blood)
(a dog with a special talent for human words)
(sleeping bears and their physical conditions)
(a different kind of vocabulary lexicon that emphasizes English words primarily from Latin and Greek origins)
(Latin: geese [as well as swans and ducks])
(Greek: man, mankind; human beings; including, males (man, men; boy, boys) and females (woman, women; girl, girls); all members of the human race; people, humanity)
(Greek: aphairesis, withdrawal, separation, removal and aphairein, "to take away")
(the Sun god who brings life-giving heat and light to Earth)
(Latin: harena, "sand" or "arena" in English, became the general term for "shows" and now it refers more to "sports", etc.)
(Latin: harena, "sand" or "arena" in English, became the general term for "shows" and now it refers more to "sports", etc.)
(Latin: to be dry; lacking enough water for things to grow, dry and barren; by extension, not interesting, lifeless, dull)
(Greek > Latin: yellow orpiment [pigment of gold]; arsenic trisulfide, having a lemon-yellow color and a resinous luster; used as a pigment)
(the science of the stars, anciently equivalent to astronomy, which was known as natural astrology, and used to predict such natural events as eclipses, the date of Easter, and meteorological phenomena)
(Greek > Latin: one of the Titans, son of Iapetus and Clymene, supporting the heavens on his shoulders; later, a king of Mauretania, changed by Perseus into Mt. Atlas [Greek mythology])
(Greek > Latin: an ancient Greek and Roman god of wine and revelry; earlier called Dionysus by the Greeks)
(scientist, inventor, printer, writer, patriot, and diplomat; sharing his contribution of wisdom to generations from the past, in the present, and into the future)
(Greek: deep, depth; the fauna and flora of the bottom of the sea; sea bottom; depth [by extension, this element includes lake, river, and stream bottoms])
(fauna [animals] and flora [plants] at the bottom of the sea)
(Greek: B, β; second letter of the Greek alphabet and the second object in any order of arrangement or classification)
(scribe tools and symbols of one of the most important occupations of ancient Egyptian times)
(acknowledgements of information utilized for -cola, -colas; -cole; -colent; -colid; -coline; -colous word entries)
(Latin: bile; which is a digestive juice secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and aids in the digestion of fats)
(applications of biometrics; problems and "smart passports")
(robotics engineers blend expertise from fields of biology and computer engineering to produce robots that mimic living creatures)
(Utilizing nature in the present and in the future with engineering designs)
(a bionic hand which is considered a next-generation prosthetic device which appeals to both patients and health care professionals)
(biotechnology and new technologies and markets)
(Greek: mucus; a slippery protective secretion that is produced in the linings of some organs of the body by the mucous membranes and glands)
(by John Godfrey Saxe)
(A Blog is Another Way to Express Our Selves When Writing on the Internet)
(A Blog is Another Way to Express Our Selves When Writing on the Internet)
(more and better sterilization of body parts is essential to successful body transplants)
(books from everywhere and any time)
(Greek > Latin: intestinal rumblings, tummy rumbling; gurgling and splashing)
(anxieties and depressions are brain-based)
(Latin: cheek; the inner or outer sides of the mouth and the face)
(Latin: burere, "to burn up"; from urere, with an inserted or faulty separation of b in amburere, "to burn around"; which stands for amb-urere, "to burn around", but it was misdivided into am-burere and because of this misdivision, the new verb burere was formed with the past participle bustum; so, it really came from urere, "to burn, to singe")
(Latin: the wand of a herald, herald's staff; specifically, the wand of Hermes [Greek] and Mercury [Latin])
(Latin: lime, calcium; heel, bone of the tarsus; to tread; derived from calx, calcis, "limestone, lime, pebble"; from Greek words halix and psephos, "small stone, pebble".)
(a compilation of several languages)
(books that have served as sources of information for the compilations of the various calendar histories and modern usages of several chronological topics)
(The Nordic story of Tiw and Fenris)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(calendars past and present)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(June, the month for marriages, past and present)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(links to a variety of languages)
(waxing, waning and phases of the moon)
(the sidereal and the synodical month)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(Month and Day Names)
(meaning and origin)
(Greek > Latin: reed, pipe; the word for "reed" in Hebrew, Arabic, and Egyptian was kaneh; then the word element passed into Greek and Latin, and into the languages of western Europe)
(Latin: of, pertaining to, or resembling hair; minute [hairlike] blood vessels that connect the arterioles and the venules)
(Part 1 of 4: The Ballad of Salvation Bill by Robert W. Service and additional capnomania-fumimania information about smoking or addiction to tobacco smoke from the past to the present)
(Part 2 of 4: "The Ballad of Salvation Bill" by Robert Service was based on experiences he had with a compulsive smoker who just had to smoke because smoking was so important in his life)
(Part 3 of 4: smoking and anti-smoking, or anti-tobacco, have been in conflict for more than a century regarding those who smoke)
(Part 4 of 4: more historical incidents about smoking and what happens to people who smoke)
(Part 1 of 4: fear and hatred of tobacco smoke or being around smokers and being exposed to smoking in general)
(Part 2 of 4: fear and hatred of tobacco smoke and the efforts to restrict smoking in public places)
(Part 3 of 4: fear and hatred of tobacco smoke and the efforts being made to restrict smoking where those who don't smoke are not adversely affected by those who are smokers)
(Part 4 of 4: smoking in public and the efforts to ban, or to restrict, second-hand smoke that threatens the lives of waiters, waitresses, and innocent customers so they don't have to suffer from the discomfort and health perils presented by smokers)
(out of the laboratory and producing real applications)
(Greek: fire, burn, burnt, burner; from kaustikos, "capable of burning" or "burning" and kaukstos, "combustible" and from kaiein, "to burn")
(Latin: blind, blind gut [first part of the large intestine, forming a dilated pouch into which open the ileum, the colon, and the appendix vermiformis]; any blind pouch)
(Latin: unmarried; vow not to marry; chaste, morally pure in thought and conduct; that which is considered to be decent and virtuous behavior)
(cytology is the study of cells and the cell theory states that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells arise only from other cells)
(Latin: to count, to reckon, to assess, to estimate, to value, to deem, to judge; judgment, criticism; Latin censura and French censure)
(Greek: a whale, or whales and other whale-like creatures)
(Greek > Latin: formless matter; especially from Greek, gulf, chasm, abyss, the rude unformed mass; and by extension, "confusion and disorder")
(Modern Latin: chemical element; from Greek and Latin, alumen, a substance having an astringent taste; metal)
(Modern Latin: chemical element; from Latin, beryllus, and Greek, beryllos, gem; metal)
(Arabic: boraq, and Persian, burah [borax]; BORax + carbON; nonmetal)
(Modern Latin: chemical element; from Greek and Latin, cadmia, earthy or earth; metal)
(Modern Latin: chemical element; first made at the University of California and named for California and the University of California in Berkeley; radioactive metal)
(Modern Latin: chemical element; named for the asteroid Ceres which was discovered in 1803 and named for the Roman goddess Ceres; rare earth)
(Modern Latin: chemical element; named for Pierre and Marie Curie; radioactive metal)
(Modern Latin: chemical element; named after gadolinite, a mineral named for Johan Gadolin (1760-1852), a Finnish chemist and mineralogist; rare earth)
(Modern Latin: chemical element; named for Ernest Lawrence, an American physicist and inventor of the cyclotron; radioactive metal)
(Latin: "forming niter", or “niter producer”; because niter, a mineral properly called potassium nitrate, and contains nitrogen, a compound of nitrogen; gas)
(Modern Latin: from Greek, named in honor of the asteroid Pallas, which was discovered at about the same time; and for Pallas, the Greek goddess of wisdom; metal)
(Modern Latin: named for potash, a compound of potassium; the symbol is from Latin kalium; from Arabic, gilf, and a reference to the charred ashes of the saltwort; metal)
(Modern Latin: from radium and argon, its chemical cousin; radioactive gas)
(Modern Latin: named for Ernest Rutherford, a New Zealand physicist and chemist; radioactive metal)
(Modern Latin: named for Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-1999), an American nuclear physicist and Nobel Prize winner; radioactive metal)
(Modern Latin: from Sanskrit, solvere; or sulvere; and Latin, sulphur; nonmetal)
(Modern Latin: a temporary IUPAC [International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry] nomenclature; radioactive metal)
(Modern Latin: a temporary IUPAC [International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry] nomenclature; radioactive metal)
(Modern Latin: a temporary IUPAC [International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry] nomenclature; radioactive metal)
(Greek: khimaira, fabled monster; unreal, fantastic, imaginary, fanciful, unrealistic; however, in medical and other scientific fields, characterized by two or more genetically distinct cell types in one organism)
(perceptions of China and the Chinese in their actual interrelationships with themselves and the rest of the world; as well as, the potential hazards and perils of their global dominance)
(Greek: tunic, covering; a reference to the chemical constituent of crab and lobster shells)
(Greek: choledochos, from chole, "bile" + dechomai, "to receive"; the common bile duct or tube; conveying bile; containing bile, which is a yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and passes through the common bile duct into the first section of the small intestine or duodenum where it helps to digest fat)
(Greek: disease in which the bodily humors [biles] are subject to violent discharge; characterized by severe vomiting and diarrhea)
(Greek: acquisition of wealth by making money; transacting business to gain wealth; efforts made to possess goods and money; striving to be rich)
(narrative descriptions and records of events from the distant and recent past; as well as, significant current events of global interest)
(Greek (khylos) > Latin (chylus): juice, to pour; pertaining to chyle, the milky fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fat that is a product of the digestive process)
(primarily the learning of the Latin and/or Greek languages, history, and literature)
(art cleptomaniac said, "I enjoy art, I love such works of art, I collected them and kept them at home")
(Greek: inclination, slope; the [supposed] slope of the earth from the equator towards the poles; hence, the latitudinal zone of the earth and prevailing weather in a given zone)
(Greek: the part of the leg between the knee and the ankle)
(Greek: cuckoo; the end of the vertebral column in man and in some apes; the rudiment of a tail)
(Latin: common, universal, public; multitude and common people)
(completed units of words that contain word entries that have both enhanced definitions and appropriate usages in context sentences while units of compositions presents additional information about specific words or topics)
(A list of words with the same spellings that can cause confusion.)
(lists of homonyms, homophones, homographs, and other words that cause confusions)
(Latin: to bind; to link together; to tie together; close tightly and jointly)
(You can make this research site bigger and better!)
(Greek: crowlike; used in the specialized sense of "pertaining to, or connected to the coracoid, the bony process that forms part of the scapular arch [and is so named because its shape resembles that of a crow's beak"])
(Greek: kosmos to cosmos; "world, universe"; from its "perfect order and arrangement"; to order, to arrange, to adorn; well-ordered, regular, arranged; skilled in adornment, which came into English as cosmetic.)
(Greek: ring; used in the extended sense of pertaining to the [ring-shaped] cartilage that forms the back and lower part of the laryngeal cavity)
(Latin: "ten" plus "bel" [Alexander Graham Bell]; a list of decibel levels and the examples that show the various decibel scales)
(Greek: devil, demon [evil spirit]; an intermediary spirit between gods and men which could be good or evil)
(Latin: right and left)
(historical and modern)
(priority books for a better education)
(enjoying words with special points of view, sometimes humorous, and which are not found in a "regular" dictionary)
(Latin: worthy of respect and esteem; a positive regard and honor for)
(blogs, or logs, of Word-Info site activities, daily and nightly)
(blogs, or logs, of Word-Info site activities, daily and nightly)
(blogs, or logs, of Word-Info site activities, daily and nightly)
(another journal, log, or blog about Word-Info site activities, daily and nightly)
(blogging a blog in this blogosphere; or logging a log in this journalsphere)
(a blog, or log, about the Word Info site)
(the journal saga of Word Info continues)
(another addition to the Word Info site of related articles)
(a limited amount of information to report for today's log)
(more journal information about Word Info activities)
(euphemisms, question-begging, declarifications, and cloudy vagueness sometimes designed to make lies sound truthful)
(Animal health and dung beetle health: they are both vital)
(feeding on a mixed diet of plant and animal ingredients)
(Latin: to build, to erect a building; a building, a sanctuary, a temple; originally, aedes, "building a hearth" or "to build a hearth" because the fire in the hearth was the center of the home in early times since it supplied both heat and light; over time, the meaning expanded from the hearth itself to the home and building that enclosed it)
(various topics having to do with technological education and research changes that are going on)
(more changes taking place: science and engineering workforce changes)
(research and development, the United States in a changing world)
(a crisis which involves the steady erosion of America's scientific and engineering base has been going on for several years)
(bibliographic resources and references for electricity and electronic words)
(Indo-European is believed to be the origin of many modern languages)
(The Celts settled in Britain in about 500 B.C.)
(The Romans invaded Britain and ruled the Celts from A.D. 43-410)
(The Romans were apparently never able to conquer the northern Picts)
(The Warrior Queen of the Iceni, Boudicca, Bodicea, or Boadicea, meaning "Victory", defied and attacked the Romans with her Iceni warriors, and was the embodiment of a people's hatred of Roman mistreatment)
(Under Hadrian, the Romans built a wall to protect themselves from the Picts in Northern Britain)
(the northern Picts broke through Hadrian's wall)
(Roman troops went back to Italy to defend Rome)
(the last Roman legions and trained British auxiliaries withdrew from Britain)
(the revitalization of Christianity into the English culture did much to re-establish a significant number of Latin vocabulary into the English language)
(Caedmon wrote what became known as "Caedmon's Hymn" in A.D. 657-680)
(The story of Beowulf was a literary work in Old English)
(the Venerable Bede made important contributions to the English language via Latin)
(Vikings destroyed and plundered much of England)
(Alfred the Great, the first king of England)
(Danelaw territory and English territory)
(period of greatest Danish influence)
(Edward the Confessor restored King Alfred's linage)
(Norman Invasion and Conquest by William the Conqueror)
(English was re-established in Britain)
(period of great literary producion)
(English writers used Greek and Latin to express content)
(human activities brought new objects and concepts into existence)
(scientific presentations used Latin and Greek as their nomenclature)
(new words for new inventions)
(improved travel methods and communication influence speech patterns)
(the uniformity of American English is largely a result of the improved modes of travel and communication)
(the space-age generation continues to utilize terms from Latin and Greek origins)
(Cornelius Tacitus, approximately A.D. 55 to A.D. 117, a Roman historian who wrote about the Rebellion of Boudicca, A.D. 60-61)
(events that have affected England and, sometimes, the English language through the centuries)
(information about English words and communication)
(references, or bibliography, used as sources of information)
(highlights of illustrated historical events for a better comprehension of the historical periods which contributed to the development of the English language)
(the English language is viewed as a ticket to the future in Mongolia and other countries)
(Greek: within, inside, inner; used as a prefix [used in many words related to anatomy and biology])
(Greek > Latin: membrane lining the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain including cells and cellular membranes)
(words which originated from the names of people, things, and places)
(Latin: beginning to be, becoming; to be somewhat; a suffix that forms nouns and adjectives)
(from Proto-Germanic -iskaz, Vulgar Latin -iscus, Italian -esco, and then French -esque: a suffix forming adjuectives and indicating "resemblance, style, manner, or distinctive character, etc., of")
(Greek -issa > Late Latin -issa > Old French -esse > Middle English -esse: a suffix that forms nouns meaning a female +++, as in lioness, tigress, heiress, hostess, and sculptress)
(Latin: pertaining to summer; heat, fire; the ebb and flow of the sea, tide)
(interactions between people and animals)
(Greek: upper air, purer air [alcohol and sufuric acid]; in scientific terminology, "volatile, clean-smelling, euphoria-producing liquid composed of alcohol and sufuric acid")
(learn more about where words came from and who their family members are)
(a reaction of delight and excitement when someone makes a discovery)
(Anglo Saxon or Teutonic: in Old English times, eye was eage, which is related to a whole range of words for "eye" in other European languages; including, Greek ophthalmos and Latin oculus [with all of its subsequent derivatives])
(Latin: deception, untrue, incorrect; deceiving; contrary to truth and fact; lie)
(The Greek goddesses of destiny)
(Danish and Norwegian: fifteen; a decimal prefix used in the international metric system for measurements)
(Latin: son, and by extension, "daughter; offspring" or "family member")
(Latin: flow, flowing; moving in a continuous and smooth way; wave, moving back and forth)
(a connection of this and fourteen other Focusing on Words Newsletters are available for your learning opportunities by clicking on the link under the banner)
(Latin: leaf, leaves; a plant's device for intercepting light, obtaining and storing water and nutrients, exchanging gases, and providing a process for photosynthesis)
(Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is the practice of extracting natural gas from underground shale deposits by injecting high-pressure streams of water, sand, and chemicals)
(Latin: bottom, base; and with special reference to financial applications, "piece of land")
(Latin: helmet, helmet shaped, to cover with a helmet; cap; used primarily in zoology and botany with phases of sense development that seem to have been: weasel, weasel's skin or hide, leather, and then a helmet made of leather; by extension, it also means "cat, cats" in some words)
(Named after the Italian physician and physicist who investigated the nature and effects of what he conceived to be electricity in animal tissue; who in 1762 discovered and first described voltaic electricity; electric currents; and primarily, direct electrical current.)
(Greek: from gamet[e], "wife" and gamet[es], "husband" [from gamein, "to marry"]; used chiefly as "pertaining to a gamete, a mature reproductive cell")
(Greek: Γ, γ; the third letter of the Greek alphabet; corresponding to g, as in go and as a numeral, it indicates 3)
(Greek: an eating, or gnawing, sore ending in mortification, necrosis, or the death of bodily tissue; usually the result of ischemia or the loss of blood supply to the affected area, bacterial invasion, and subsequent putrefaction)
(Latin: feeling of pleasure and delight; joy, rejoice)
(Latin: to freeze; frosting; cold; then, to congeal, and finally: gelatin)
(Greek > Latin: race, kind; line of descent; origin, creation; pertaining to sexual relations, reproduction, or heredity; and more recently, a gene or genes)
(a technology that manages, analyzes, and provides geographic information)
(a technology that manages, analyzes, and provides geographic information)
(Greek: glue; in medicine, the network of supporting tissue and fibers that nourishes nerve cells within the brain and spinal cord)
(GPS, Civilian and Military Users)
(GPS Defined and Indications of Improvements in Accuracy)
(Segway, a modern invention, offers GPS with their transporter)
(international cheating, defrauding, and dishonesty and their detriments to human progress)
(mythology for all seasons)
(a few deities and the symbols that represent them)
(traditional and modern group names that try to describe group characteristics)
(Hindu: references to a wandering race of people who have called themselves and their language Romany)
(from the depths of the ocean floors to the highest mountains, from dry deserts to grasslands, and the warm and wet tropical areas; all provide each form of life its preferred habitat)
(Samples of ancient beard and male and female hair styles)
(Latin: breathe, breath; from halitus, "breath" and related to halare, "to breathe")
(air purification in the home, business, school, and workplace)
(alcohol and its dangers to the brain and bodily functions)
(be aware of the effects of oxytocin in nasal sprays)
(itching spots on legs have turned into ulcerated sores)
(Greek: pleasure, joy, and being happy)
(Greek: Hermes, the son of Zeus and Maia, the god of commerce and messenger of the gods in Greek mythology; identified by the Romans as Mercury; however, some of the words in this unit come from Hermes tris megistos, Hermes Trismegistus, literally, "Hermes, Thrice the Greatest" referring to the Egyptian god Thoth, who was identified with the Greek god Hermes, of science and arts)
(Greek heuriskein and Modern Latin heuristicus and from German heuristisch; "to invent, to discover")
(there are various kinds and conditions of hibernations)
(a father of the early Christian Church whose major work was his translation of the Scriptures from Hebrew and Greek into Latin known as the Vulgate)
(Greek: same, equal, like, similar, common; one and the same)
(confusion that sometimes exists because of the spellings and similar sounds of words)
(Explained and Demonstrated)
(The human body is at the edge of human comprehension with its microcosmic mysteries and its 100 trillion cells!)
(electronic chips are being placed under the skins of people and animals)
(Trying to find solutions to two life-robbing diseases: Alzheimer's and Parkinson's)
(Greek: a suffix that forms nouns and is usually used to form names of arts and sciences)
(Latin: a suffix used to form names of zoological groups, classes, and orders)
(Greek: a suffix used to form the names of families in zoology and biology; descended from, related to)
(Creativity is achieved by focusing and striving with one's chosen objective regardless of what others say or have done! In essence, it is a conception and the completion of the chosen vision.)
(Latin: in, into, within, inside, on, toward [il-, ir-, im-], in, into, etc.: involve, incur, invade; also, used intensively, as in the words inflame and inflammable, or without perceptible force.)
(Old English, Middle English: in, into; within; toward; a prefix used in front of English words, not Latin or Greek elements; as in the words, indoors and inland)
(Latin: oculus used as a reference to "eye" to designate something that looks like or is suggestive of a person's organ of sight including potato "eyes")
(Ecological survival depends on insects)
(The Right Web Hosting Provider Is the KEY to a Happy and Successful Website Presence)
(Latin: the fasting [intestine], the portion of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum [so named because early anatomists typically found this organ to be empty in dissection]; original meaning, "hungry, not partaking of food")
(Latin: joke, joking, jesting, humorous; cheerful and full of good humor)
(listings of logs, or blogs, sharing personal stepping stones and stumbling blocks)
(Latin: decide, determine a result; declare to be; right and power to interpret the law)
(Greek: containing, or derived from keratin, a highly insoluble scleroprotein that is the main constituent of horny tissues, the nails, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel; derived from Greek kera[s], kerat[os], "horn")
(Greek: one thousand; a decimal prefix used in the international metric system for measurements and representing 103 or 1 000)
(facts and truthful information to improve the accuracy of our knowledge)
(signs given in the arenas of Rome and now in our modern times)
(influences on humanity including those from the past and the present)
(Greek: the soft part of the body between the ribs and the hip, flank, loin; denotes the flank or loins and the abdominal wall or a part of the abdomen)
(Latin: insect in its grub stage; from Latin larva, "mask" and by extension, "ghost", the idea being that an insect in its grub stage is merely a ghost of its future self and bears no resemblance to its future form)
(Greek > Modern Latin: throat, upper part of the windpipe; the vocal-chord area of the throat; the musculocartilaginous structure below the tongue root and hyoid bone and above the trachea)
(Latin-Roman Numerals that are used in English and other modern languages)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
(Greek: moths, butterflies; a combination of lepido-, "flake" or "scale" and ptero, "wing")
(Latin: book; originally, the "inner bark of a tree", whence "the text written on this", "collection of leaves for writing", and finally "book")
(the way they were in ancient times and are in the present and potentials for the future)
(Latin: literally tongue; and by extension, speech, language)
(Greek: stone, rock; hard consolidated mineral matter; hard matter formed from mineral and earth material; hard substance that is solid)
(Deep-sea animals have made attempts to light their cold and dark environments by carrying their own lights on their heads and on every other conceivable part of the bodies; including their eyes and tails and the insides of their mouths. The light they shed is living light.)
(Greek > Latin: the art of speaking and reasoning)
(Diana, or Luna, Roman goddess of the Moon, animals, and hunting)
(A suffix that forms adjectives and examples that are used to show them.)
(Greek: water, yellowish fluid; connected with, or containing, lymph, a transparent fluid that is derived from body tissue and conveyed to the bloodstream by the lymphatic vessels)
(Mrs. Malaprop and her Malapropisms)
(Ludicrous-English Caused by Blunders and Incompetence)
(it holds back human and economic development)
(Latin: mantellum, cloak, veil; by way of Middle English, from Old English mentel and from Old French mantel; resulting in English words about: mantle, mantel, and manteau)
(Greek: derived from an ancient villiage in Greece, northeast of Athens; as a result of an important Greek victory over the Persians in 490 B.C.)
(Latin: male, manly, of or relating to men or boys; of the male sex and gender; bold, courageous)
(Latin: to chew; Greek: to gnash, grind, or rub the upper and lower teeth together)
(Greek: breast; the front of the human chest and either of two soft rounded organs on each side of the chest in women and men; however, with women the organs are more prominent and produce milk after childbirth; also, a milk-producing gland in mammals that corresponds to the human breast)
(simplified connections of word parts which work together to form practical medical terms that can enhance one's understanding of several fields of medicine)
(Memories of Experiences while Living and Traveling in Many Parts of the World)
(a man who dealt with the origins of words and their developments)
(Memoir about Eric Honeywood Partridge, lexicographer; born February 6, 1894 and died June 1, 1979: 85 years)
(personal experiences and memories of past events)
(Latin: memory, remember, thought; retaining and recalling past experiences and information; capacity to store information; ability to recall or to recognize previous experiences; recollection; retention)
(Greek: membranes enveloping the brain and spinal cord)
(tearing or injuring the meniscus of the knee and possible therapy)
(magnetic therapies doubted by other "scientists")
(presenting each metric name, metric symbol, and numerical metric factor)
(Greek mikso > Latin mixtus: mix, mixed, a mixing, a mingling, an intercourse; to combine or to blend into one mass or substance; to combine things; such as, activities, ideas, styles; to balance and to adjust individual musical performers’ parts to make an overall sound by electronic means)
(Greek: memory, to remember; recollection of something or someone; awareness, consciousness of the present and the past)
(-cede, -ceed, and -sede)
(Greek: with difficulty, difficult; with toil and pain)
(a collection of misheard words and sentences)
(Greek: goddesses of fine arts; including, Calliope, Clio, Erato, Urania, Euterpe, Polyhymnia, Thalia, Melpomene, and Terpsichore)
(Greek: mucus; a protective secretion from the mucous membranes in the nose, throat, and lungs; a thick fluid produced by the linings of some tissues of the body and is secreted as a protective lubricant coating by cells and glands of the mucous membranes)
(Greek: bone marrow; the spinal cord and medulla oblongata; the myelin sheath of nerve fibers)
(names that describe Venery or group names as determined by traditional terms of the hunt and those of more modern creations that attempt to describe group characteristics)
(varied potential advancements in nanotechnology innovations)
(nano science and engineering prospects are providing incentives to invest time and money)
(myths and science fiction regarding nanotechnology)
(experts say that nanotechnology will change our way of living!)
(One of the body's busiest passage ways and essential to a person's well being)
(Apollo, the sun god, and the planets with links to additional details about the sun and each planet)
(diseases spread as mankind congregated into a squalor of cities)
(Latin: from gnoscere, to come to know, to get to know, to get acquainted [with]; know, learn; mark, sign; and cognoscere, to get to know, to recognize)
(A noisy silence in the waters of the oceans and the seas)
(an explanation of what it is and where it came from)
(Olympia, a place in Greece in the western Peloponnese, scene of the Olympic games)
(Greek: the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet; Ω, ω; the ending, the last of anything)
(Latin: fat, adipose tissue; and by extension, caul, intestines)
(Greek: said to be a stem for "all, every, whole", or "complete"; that is, a field of study in biology that refers to the whole set of omics including their -omics and -ome subfields in order to understand life as a holistic existence and organic beings as a whole)
(Greek: scrotum; a combining form denoting relationship to the scrotum or the pouch of skin which contains the testes, epididymides, and lower portions of the spermatic cords)
(a variety of palindrome words, both historical and modern)
(Greek: pemphix, "blister"; blistering skin diseases or a swelling of the skin that contains watery fluid and is caused by burning or irritation; a bump or small swelling on or beneath the skin)
(Greek: space between the scrotum or mons veneris and the anus)
(Greek: pharynx [the alimentary canal between the palate and the esophagus]; part of the neck or throat)
(Greek [phlegmatikos] and Latin [phlegmaticus]: heat, inflammation; burn, inflame)
(Phobia Variations Defined and Explained)
(Greek: (classic and modern) phono, phonos; slaughter, kill, murder, homicide)
(Greek: light; ultraviolet and infrared radiation; radiant energy)
(a danger to both young and old)
(Italian: very small or from Spanish, "beak, tip, very small"; and from Latin, beccus, beak; also, a decimal prefix used in the international metric system for measurements)
(Latin: "paint"; coloring matter involving both animals and plants)
(Latin: to gather, to pillage, to plunder, to rob, to steal, to snatch, to heap up (as stones) and to carry off)
(Greek: a combining form confused between three Greek roots and may mean "hunger", "dirt", or "drink"; and there is one Latin form referring to the "pine tree")
(Latin: a literary thief; "plunderer, oppressor, kidnapper" [one who "abducts the child or slave of another"]; then by extension, to take and use the thoughts, writings, etc. of someone else and represent or claim them as one's own)
(plagiarize comes from Latin plagium which meant "kidnapping")
(passively drifting and wandering in the sky)
(Latin: sole of the foot; to tread down with the sole or the flat bottom or the underside of the foot; and by extension, to level the ground for sowing seeds)
(avoid redundancies or excessive repetitiousness by not using unnecessary repetitions and superfluous words or more word usages than is needed, desired, or required)
(Wilfred Owen challenges our thinking about whether it is really so sweet and fitting to die for one's country)
(a poem about self control and character development by Rudyard Kipling)
(two roads diverged or separated and went in different directions according to Robert Frost)
(an expression of admiration and appreciation for trees)
(Robert Service and E.B. de Vito, two logophiles, express their fondness for words)
(some things are not as obvious as we may think they are even with people who seem to be so well off, according to Edwin Arlington Robinson and Franklin P. Adams)
(Greek: gray; pertaining to the "gray matter" of the nervous system, brain, and the spinal cord)
(Polygamy Parts 1, 2, and 3)
(single marriages and multiple marriages)
(linguistic terms for words with two or more meanings; usually, multiple meanings of a word or words)
(Named for Andrea Prader, Swiss pediatrician, born 1919; and Heinrich Willi, Swiss pediatrician, 1900–1971)
(Latin: before [both in time and place])
(confusions explained and clarified with mnemonic tools for remembering the two words)
(scribe tools and symbols of one of the most important occupations of ancient Egyptian times)
(coined and presented by Royston M. Roberts, PhD, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Texas, Austin; among many other achievements)
(sections which are available in this series about reasons for publishing)
("A Look at Publishing", remarks made by Godfrey Harris)
("A Look at Publishing", remarks made by Godfrey Harris)
("A Look at Publishing", remarks made by Godfrey Harris)
("A Look at Publishing", remarks made by Godfrey Harris)
("A Look at Publishing", remarks made by Godfrey Harris)
("A Look at Publishing", remarks made by Godfrey Harris)
(Greek: renal pelvis; especially of the kidney; from "tub, vat, basin, and trough")
(Greek: fire, burn, burning, heat, produced by heating, hot; and sometimes also referring to "fever as shown at this link")
(Latin: complain, complaint, full of complaints; lack of satisfaction; lament, cry of sorrow and grief)
(fluid of life from ancestors, parents, and transfusions; something that survives by circulating)
(slip-ups, goofs, flubs, and other blunders in many areas of communication; examples of incompetence and incongruity)
(slip-ups, goofs, flubs, and other blunders in many areas of communication; examples of language incompetence)
(slip-ups, goofs, flubs, and other blunders in many areas of communication; examples of language incompetence)
(bound to sell and to be read; the ability to hear with the eyes)
(situation in which less and less is done by more and more officials; government agency where after all is said and done, more is said than done)
(an agency where after all is said and done, more is said than done.)
(striving to entertain, to inform, and to stimulate thinking)
(automatic electronic control systems; a cyberplague of electronic communications and miscommunications)
(picturesque, poetic, and sometimes, humorous writing)
(a book that is bound to be used and where one word leads to another and another, ad infinitum)
(our planet, whose interior is very hot but whose exterior is not so hot; a minor planet with major problems; and a jigsaw puzzle with a peace missing)
(a tool that sometimes expresses thought, sometimes obscures thought, and too often replaces thought)
(word origins and affixes; ancestral associations with their histories)
(mistakes are what lawyers get paid for and what doctors bury)
(sometimes an unexplainable panic and sometimes a justified reaction)
(a political system that operates on a deficit and continues to print more and more money)
(grammarians and non-grammarians: beware)
(what youths rarely think about and what elders are constantly reminded of . . . most of the time)
(something that comes in two basic gender formats, but in billions of shapes and forms)
(information and viewpoints that are constantly shifting courses in the midst of ever-changing news; knowing which perspectives to put into and what to keep out of a newspaper)
(medium of exchange of thoughts and ideas between people; the storehouse of accumulated knowledge through the centuries)
(medium of exchange of thoughts and ideas between people; the storehouse of accumulated knowledge through the centuries)
(Latin words and phrases worth knowing)
(failure in life takes place when we live and fail to learn; what we don't know, we can learn)
(a fashion show between our naked arrival into the world and our dressed departure)
(pitching and tossing on the sea of matrimony)
(the science of the living world; including the good and the bad)
(logical fallacy; misrelations between the follow-up and the follow-through or nonsense of non sequence)
(research of ideas or writings from other sources and making them worse—or better)
(conduct of public affairs for private advantages; people who have the gift of gab and the gift of grab)
(a form of word humor when people fiddle with words and laugh at the resultant loony tunes: Considered by some to be the lowest form of humus, earthy wit that we all dig and often respond to with groans and moans)
(a form of word humor when people fiddle with words and laugh at the resultant loony tunes; considered by some to be the lowest form of humus, earthy wit, that we all dig and often respond to with groans and moans)
(a quiz about topics that appear to have obvious answers but which might not be correct)
(patient study of the misjudgments and misstatements of others; digging and finding whatever turns up)
(something that may not be golden, but is worth its weight in gold and which can't be misquoted)
(a nation that utilizes automation and technology, but which is depending more and more on outsourcing to other nations for the experts in those areas)
(a time when there is less pax and more tax)
(presentations of living conceptions; the medium of exchange for thoughts and ideas between people)
(presentations of living conceptions; the medium of exchange for thoughts and ideas between people)
(a four-letter and a five-letter word that are avoided by many people)
(RFID Is ready for more and more organizations)
(list of articles and special information about RFID)
(what it is and what its future may be)
(Latin: tearing away, seizing, swift, rapid; snatch away, seize, carry off; from Latin rapere, "to seize by force and to carry off")
(Latin: reciprocus, turning back the same way, alternating; turning backward and forward; to give, to do, to feel, or to show in return)
(millions of photoreceptor cells residing in the human retina gather light and transmit signals to the brain)
(A Special Publication for Logophiles (YOU?) and for Those Who Want a Handy Reference to Latin-Greek Elements Used in English-Derived Words)
(a Czech word, robota meaning "serf" or "slave" or "forced work" which is now applied to any manufactured device that is capable of doing work ordinarily done by human beings)
(links to topics about robots, robotic devices, and the science of robotics)
(Latin numbers as cardinals, "quantities"; and as ordinals, "showing order" or "designating a place in an ordered sequence")
(chapter listings with subdivision links for easier reading of Those about to Die book by Daniel P. Mannix)
(historical perspectives for a better understanding of Roman events in their arenas)
(words which identify Roman terms referring to people and other topics; especially, those appearing in Those about to Die)
(Latin: to chew over again, to chew the cud; to muse or to meditate; that is, to think about something in a deep and serious or dreamy and abstracted way or to think about something carefully, calmly, seriously, and for a long time)
(Salt runs through our language, our history, and our veins!)
(Latin: healthy, whole; by extension: cure, heal, take care of; sound in mind and body)
(More history and updates to the "sandwich")
(word origin and the historical development of sarcophagus and related sarcasm, sarcastic)
(Hebrew and Greek: the devil, the adversary)
(Saturn, Roman god of the harvest and a planet; sixth planet from the sun)
(Latin: of a school, referring to a place of learning and education)
(historical and current advances and achievements)
(international students in scientific areas of study need to possess a solid grasp of English to succeed as scientists or even to lay claim to being scientifically literate citizens of the world)
(international students in scientific areas of study need to possess a solid grasp of English to succeed as scientists or even to lay claim to being scientifically literate citizens of the world)
(a classical example of phobias in famous art work)
(Greek: to move back and forth; to shake, to move violently; earthquake)
(John Robertson, a committed lexicographer who is utilizing the past and the present to provide word information for our modern age)
(Latin: a partition; a dividing wall between two spaces, tissues, or cavities; from saepire "to enclose, to hedge in", and from saepes, "fence, hedge")
(There are septic tanks and then there are septic tanks)
(Latin: one and a half; normally used as a prefix; from Latin, semis “half” + que “and”)
(Hebrew: the grave; hell; pit [a gloomy netherworld for departed spirits; Shoel is the counterpart of Hades and Tartarus])
(Latin: scrinium, a case, chest, box, or receptacle; especially, one in which are deposited sacred relics, bones of a saint, or sacred books and documents)
(Origins of silk and present production)
(Greek > Latin: dried up, withered, mummy; the bony and some of the cartilaginous framework of the body of animals; including humans)
(slavery not only existed in the past, but it still exists in parts of the present world)
(units that should be seen because of their important content, illustrations, quizzes, and links to any additional related information)
(Latin: to scatter, to strew or to spread here and there, to sprinkle)
(Latin: to bind oneself; to pledge; to promise solemnly; to adopt and support a cause)
(just what authority makes English standard and where does that authority come from?)
(a secretly hidden coding that dates back to ancient Greece and is used even in this modern era)
(Latin: from -stingere and -stinguere, to separate; to quench, quenching; to wipe out, to obliterate; to goad, to stick; sticking, puncturing, probing)
(words with Latin and Greek origins and from other sources)
(a story told with an emphasis on Latin and Greek roots and affixes)
(translation of "The Lupus and the Tragas" story)
(learning English words from Latin and Greek elements)
("The Emperor's New Clothes" by Hans Christian Andersen is a fable about the pitfalls of political self-aggrandizement and the fear of people to face reality even when they know that the reality of the situation is untrue)
(Greek: strabizein > Modern Latin: "to squint"; imperfect focus; eyes deviating inwardly, deviating outwardly, or one eye going to the right and the other eye going to the left)
(Latin > French: device for calculating a distance traveled (in a vehicle for hire) and the corresponding fare is charged)
(advances in computers, entertainment, and science top list of tech breakthroughs)
(Latin: a witness, one who stands by; from testicle, one of the two oval male gonads supported in the scrotum by its tissues and suspended by the spermatic cord)
(Greek > Latin: inner room, bedchamber; so called by Galen because chambers at the base of the brain were thought to supply animal spirits to the optic nerves; thalamus, the middle part of the diencephalon (the area in the center of the brain just above the brain stem that includes the thalamus and hypothalamus) which relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex of the brain)
(Greek: young branch, shoot; thallus, a simple-plant body with undifferentiated root, stem, and leaf)
(learn how to avoid being a malapropist)
(Greek: thorax, chest [part of the body between the neck and the abdomen; "breastplate, breast, chest"])
(Latin: a suffix forming nouns from verbs of condition and action; an act or process: resumption, absorption; state or condition, redemption, exhaustion; something resulting from or otherwise related to an act or process, assumption, friction)
(Latin: toile to toilette in Middle French)
(Latin: toile to toilette in Middle French)
(Latin: toile to toilette in Middle French to "toilet" in English)
(Latin: toile to toilette in Middle French to "toilet" in English)
(toilet paper is a very modern product of convenience)
(toilets were finally developed into practical utilities)
(an excess of nutrients flowing from the land to the sea has created serious environment problems)
(an excess of nutrients flowing from the land to the sea has created serious environmental problems)
(an excess of nutrients flowing from the land to the sea has created serious environmental problems)
(an excess of nutrients flowing from the land to the sea has created serious environmental problems)
(using plants; such as, algae to clean up waste water)
(once considered in poor taste; the joke was not nearly as vulgar as those that are currently expressed on many U.S. TV shows)
(unusual water recycling device is revealed)
(the "tongue" term may be applied to both a body part in the mouth and an extensive reference to "language")
(extensive information about the physical aspects of the tongue and how it functions)
(Greek: tragoidia, a compound of tragos, "goat" and aeidein, "to sing"; goat song)
(a sub-field of tribology involving contact geometries)
(also known as trichinellosis, it is caused by eating raw or undercooked pork and wild game products)
(Latin: of, relating to, or resembling; compound of the suffixes -ule, "little, small" and -ar, "pertaining to, of the nature of, like"; and so, -ular is a combining form meaning: referring to something "specified": appendicular, molecular, pedicular; as well as, a combining form meaning "resembling" something specified: circular, globular, tubular)
(Latin: womb; hollow, muscular organ of the female reproductive system in which the fertilized ovum, or egg, and the fetus, unborn baby, is nourished and grows until birth)
(Latin: flow, wave, to sway back and forth)
(Latin: twisted and swollen vein)
(Latin: a vessel or vessels; including, tubes, ducts, or canals that convey and circulate fluids; such as, blood, lymph, or sap, through the bodies of animals or plants)
(from Latin vates, seer, prophet; sooth-sayer; prophesy, prophecy; which should not be confused with Vatican, "Pope's palace in Rome" or Vaticanism, "doctrine of papal supremacy and infallibility")
(Latin: quantity having magnitude and direction; carrier, bearer, conveyer; from the stem of vehere, "to carry, to convey, to cart")
(terms of Venery or group names from traditional terms of the hunt and some more modern creations that attempt to describe group characteristics of animals, humans, and groupings)
(Venus, Roman goddess; Aphrodite, Greek goddess; second planet from the sun)
(Latin: to beat, to strike; to drive, to force back; from verber, whip, lash, rod; by extension, to make sounds or noises or those sounds and echoes that are thrown back again or repeatedly)
(the study of flags and their significance)
(more about the study of flags and their significance)
(more about the study of flags and their significance)
(Latin: internal organs; all that is under the skin, all parts in the body except flesh or muscles; entrails; any large interior organ in any of the three great cavities of the body; specifically, those within the chest; such as, the heart or lungs; or in the abdomen; such as, the liver, pancreas, and intestines; and in the head; such as, the brain)
(numbers of global visitors as indicated by the flags and initials of the countries from which the visitors have come)
(seeing English words in three vocabulary quiz types from different perspectives for a greater enhancement of English-word skills)
(English-Vocabulary Words from Latin and Greek Units Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes that Every Advanced-English Speaker and Reader Should Know)
(Explorations of the Planets)
(The translation of the story with the interpretations of the right answers in parentheses)
(an abundance of Word Information about English Vocabulary derived from Latin and Greek sources)
(Greek: foreign, foreigner; alien; different; extraneous; strange, stranger; and by extension, guest)
(Greek: wood; the first element of various scientific and technical words that refer to wood)
(origin and background of the study of animals in motion)
Word Entries containing the term: “and
A committee is a group of people who keep minutes and waste hours.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 1)
A lot of money is tainted: It taint yours and it taint mine.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 1)
A secret is enough for one, too much for two, and nothing at all for three.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 1)
Aesculepius, Asculapius (Latin); and Asclepius, Asklepios (Greek), Parts 1 and 2
A god for all medical doctors.

These two sections present information about Aesculepius, Asclepius with illustrations, Part 1; and Asculapius, Asklepios, Part 2. The images make it easier to appreciate and understand the origins and struggles of medicine and those ancient influences on modern medical images.

This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 1)
Agriculture and Fertility: Demeter, Ceres
Greek: Demeter (goddess)
Latin: Ceres (goddess)

Goddess of agriculture. Symbols: sheaf of wheat, poppies, and the cornucopia (the horn of peace and plenty).

This entry is located in the following units: agri-, agrio-, ager (page 2) gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 1)
aid and abet
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 2)
alpha and omega
1. The first and last; signifies God's eternity.
2. The basic meaning of something; the crucial part; the most important aspect of something.

The beginning and the end, the first and the last, as in "She had to master the alpha and omega of the new computer program before she could even begin."

This idiom and its meaning, based on the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, appears in the New Testament (Revelation 1:8): "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord," where it is repeated three more times.

This entry is located in the following units: alpha; A, α + (page 1) omega; Ω, ω + (page 1)
An adult is someone who has stopped growing at both ends and is now growing in the middle.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 2)
An English History and Its Development, Introduction, Part 01
An English History and Its Development, Introduction, Part 02
Etymological approach to learn more about English words.
and etc.
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 2)
And in a voice that rang he answered
“No!”
April 24, 2007: Words of historical and current interest
As seen in the International Herald Tribune:

French candidates scramble for center: Sarkozy and Royal woo Bayrou voters

Takeover to create a banking behemoth: ABN AMRO accepts offer from Barclays valued at 67 billion euro

Boris Yeltsin, a flawed hero, dies; Russia's democratic father was a praised, and reviled, figure

Alpine village will break hundred years of solitude: Anticipation and dread for Austrian tunnel

From chaos, Wikipedia shapes a breaking story

U.S. Envoy to Germany joins fray over energy

Europe approves tightening of sanctions against Iran

Charges of fraud abound as ruling party wins in Nigeria

Classes resume as Virginia campus fights to regain balance

Romanian lawmakers set date for impeachment vote

Boris Yeltsin's bequest

Bagging eternal plastics

Unintended consequences

The elusive man who May have invented jazz

American talent feted in London: Energy of young New York designers goes on display

armed assault and holdup *
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 3)
assault and battery (s) (noun), assaults and batteries (pl)
A legal term for a crime of threatening someone together with the act of physically hitting the person: When Mario and Leroy got into an argument in the bar, Mario said he would knock Leroy down and spit on him; then he actually kicked Leroy in the left knee which caused him to fall down on the floor and then Mario was arrested and charged with assault and battery by the police.
This entry is located in the following unit: sali-, salt-, -sili-, sult-, -salta- (page 1)
Babylonian and (Jewish), Ancient months
duzu (tammuz)
abu (ab)
ululu (elul)
tashritu (tishri)
arasamnu (marheshvan)
kislimu (kislev)
tebetu (tebeth)
shabatu (shebat)
addaru (adar)
nisanu (nisan)
aiaru (iyyar)
simanu (sivan)
—From Chronology of the Ancient World by E.J. Bickerman;
Cornell University Press; Ithaca, New York; 1968.
This entry is located in the following unit: Calendar Names of Days and Months in Different Languages (page 1)
Beauty Parlor: a place where women curl up and dye.
Biometrics: Possible Problems with Biometric Systems and Smart Passports
Biometrics has perceived problems and will integrate "smart" passports.
Biomimetics: Designs by Nature, Imitated and Developed by and for Mankind

Utilizing nature in the present and in the future with engineering designs with biomimetics or biomimesis; that is, mimicking nature with technology.

Don't confuse this field of science with a similar term known as biometrics.

Books and Internet Sources of Info





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Books and Internet Sources of Info
It's possible that the content of a subject on-line can be more powerful than a traditional linear book.
This entry is located in the following unit: Books and Books: Index of Articles (page 1)
Books and Libraries: Past and Present
Books and libraries from antiquity to modern publications.
This entry is located in the following unit: Books and Books: Index of Articles (page 1)
breaking and entering
"Even the opening of a closed and unlocked door or window is sufficient to constitute a 'breaking' within terms of [legal] statute, so long as it is done with a burglarious intent." —Black's Law Dictionary.
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 3)
buried and suffocated to death *
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 3)
cease and desist
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 4)
Changing Seasons and Growing Flowers and Fruits: Vertumnus
Greek: (no equivalent)
Latin: Vertumnus (goddess)
This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 1)
chemistry and chemical elements
A great deal of information about chemistry and chemical elements is available for both chemists and non-chemists.

This resource includes: chemical words and definitions and a great deal of knowledge about chemical elements that are described at this chemical elements list; as well as, a Chemical-Elements Chart History; Part 1 and Part 2, both of which are available here.

This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 2)
Chickens, which are raised for eggs and meat, are the most popular animals that are eaten by people before they become little babies (as eggs) and after they are older and butchered for food.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 2)
commuting back and forth
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 5)
Darton, Mike and John Clark
The Macmillan Dictionary of Measurement by Mike Darton and John Clark; Macmillan Publishing Company; New York; 1994.
This entry is located in the following unit: Calendar or Calendars Bibliography (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #01
Monday, September 10, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

Including first attempts to include a journal/log/blog about the work being done for the Word Info lexicon; and excerpts of articles from The Futurist magazine about "Catching Getaway Cars" with a net; "Japan's Approach to Aging and Dying"; and an introduction to an article about the "Forecasts of H.G.Wells" regarding our modern world which he made in 1900.

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #02
Tuesday, September 11, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

Including some historical prospectives about the Word Info lexicon; and more excerpts from The Futurist magazine about the "Forecasts of H.G.Wells" regarding our modern world which he made in 1900.

The first chapter includes Mr. Wells forecasts about the "decline of the steam engine and the rise of new modes of transportation".

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #03
Wednesday, September 12, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

Comments about working on the "feather, feather-like" units with links to each group of words.

There is no information about H.G. Wells' forecasts from his book Anticipations in today's journal.

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #04
Thursday, September 13, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

Groups of word families which were completed in the past are listed with easy to follow links; including such word groups as: "feathers", "science-related topics", "rubbing", "caves", and "hair" subjects.

Another section in predictions that H.G. Wells made in 1901 about "a new way of living in the city-suburb complex" is also included.

There are also some quotes about urban growth from the UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) whic is related to Mr. Wells' predictions.

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #05
Friday, September 14, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

Additional efforts to complete the aesthe-, esthe- unit continued; however, another unit of -lagnia words from the Greek-Latin element meaning, "lust, lustful, lecherous; salaciousness", etc. also required attention. The topic may not be pleasant for some users, but this is a dictionary and people need to know what such terms mean if they ever come across them.

Another section in predictions that H.G. Wells made in 1901 about "social stratification" is also included.

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #06
Saturday, September 15, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

A few words about the special illustrated English History and Its Development. This is a very significant group of images which are geared to present a greater interest and understanding of how English developed its vocabulary.

Another section in predictions that H.G. Wells made in 1901 about "moral relativism and the decline of codes of conduct" is also included.

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #07
Sunday, September 16, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

Special excerpts from the September 8, 2007, issue of the New Scientist and an introduction to the subject of "oxo-degradable" which was seen on the magazine wrapper.

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #08
Monday, September 17, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

Another special summary of an article titled, "Nothing but a ray of light" about the dangerous use of X-rays to remove excess body hair, or hypertricosis; as seen in the September 8, 2007, issue of the New Scientist and the discovery; as well as, the inclusion, of a new unit of "leg" or cruro- words and links to other "leg" related units.

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #09
Tuesday, September 18, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

A short entry today primarily about the origin and meaning of "It's all Greek to me."

Two articles from Discover Magazine pointing out potential harm to the brain resulting from stress; as well as, information about a rare affliction of "hypersomnia", or "Rip Van Winkle Disease"; also known as "Kleine-Levin syndrome".

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #10
Wednesday, September 19, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

Another short entry today because of other activities which needed attention.

Corrections were made for units uni- and nul- and some definitions were added; otherwise, there is not much to report.

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
Diurnal and Nocturnal Log-Blog #11
Friday, September 21, 2007, journal of Word Info site activities.

Information about the word "mentor" was included today plus comments about the receipt of two missing illustrations.

This entry is located in the following unit: Journal Index of Word Info Efforts and Achievements (page 1)
each and every
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 7)
Education: Jobs and Global Trade, Part 1
Science and engineering workforce trends in Education, Jobs, and Global Trade, with more growth in other countries.

This entry is located in the following unit: Education: Index of Topics (page 1)
Education: Jobs and Global Trade, Part 2
Research and development in the United States where education, jobs, and global trade exist in a changing world.

This entry is located in the following unit: Education: Index of Topics (page 1)
Education: Jobs and Global Trade, Part 3
A view as to how we now exist in a flat world in such areas as: technology, education, commerce, communication, and?
This entry is located in the following unit: Education: Index of Topics (page 1)
Eggs are the only food that comes naturally in no deposit, no-return, and in bio-degradable packaging.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 3)
electric and magnetic fields
Forces created by the presence of an electric current, and electric charge, or a magnet.

The existence of an electric field is made known by its effect on another electric charge, and the existence of a magnetic field can be made known by its effect on another magnet.

A field around a magnet or an electric current will deflect a small magnet; such as, a compass needle, in a particular direction when it is placed in such a field.

The direction in which the north pole of the magnet points is normally called the direction of the field and the direction of the field generally follows curved lines of force.

This entry is located in the following units: electro-, electr-, electri- (page 5) -etic, -etics (page 6)
electric power and energy measurement
For many years, the term power, in association with electricity, has tended to lose its true meaning; so, power is often found used in nontechnical literature where actually the correct term energy should be used.

By definition, power is the rate at which energy is transformed or is made available and is measured in watthours.

From an economic viewpoint, the most important of all electrical measurements is the measurement of energy. The watthour meter in various forms can be found in nearly every home, factory, highway billboard, and other locations where electrical energy is being purchased.

Metering, installation and wiring have been governed by national, industrial, and local codes for so many years that, at least in the United States, a particular type of installation is nearly identical everywhere in the country.

Measurement of energy is almost always with a "fixed-installation metering". This provides safety because of the grounding of the meter enclosure and ease of reading as a result of a proper location and mounting.

Tamper-proof housing, which are also weatherproof where necessary, are typical structures that normally insure the integrity of the electric meter readings.

This entry is located in the following unit: electro-, electr-, electri- (page 12)
electricity and electrical engineering
These fields are critical areas for modern progress because without electricity, our world would be more heavily polluted and would communicate and operate at much slower speeds.

There would be no electrical equipment, no electronic devices, and there would certainly be no computers to transmit information such as is being done here.

This entry is located in the following unit: electro-, electr-, electri- (page 22)
electrolyte and acid/base balance
A nursing outcome from the Nursing Outcomes Classification, NOC, defined as a balance of electrolytes and non-electrolytes in the intracellular and extracellular compartments of the body.
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator, ENIAC
The first completely digital computer and an ancestor of most computers in use today: The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was developed by Dr. John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert during World War II at the Moore School of the University of Pennsylvania.

The massive ENIAC, which weighed 30 tons and filled an entire room, used some 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, and 10,000 capacitors.

In December, 1945, it solved its first problem regarding the calculations for the hydrogen bomb. After its official unveiling in 1946, it was used to prepare artillery-shell trajectory tables and perform other military and scientific calculations.

English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 01
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 02
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 03
Romans invaded Britain and ruled the Celts from A.D. 43-410.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 04
Romans had to conquer the Celts with many battles.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 05
Icenian Queen, Boadicea, made the Romans pay a heavy price.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 06
Romans built Hadrian's wall to protect themselves from the Picts.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 07
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 08
Roman troops went back to Italy to defend Rome from invading "barbarians".
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 09
In A.D. 410, the last Roman legions withdrew from Britain, leaving the Celts to defend themselves against the Picts and Irish.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 10
Old English Period, A.D. 450-1150.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 10A
Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, Teutonic tribes settled in Britain.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 10B
St. Augustine arrived in England with 40 priests in A.D. 597.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 10C
Caedmon, wrote "Caedmon's Hymn" in A.D. 657-680.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 11
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 12
A.D. 731, the Venerable Bede, a monk at Jarrow, England.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 13
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 14
A.D. 871-899, Alfred the Great served as the first king of England.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 15
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 16
A.D. 1016-1035, reign of King Canute (Cnute).
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 17
Accession of Edward the Confessor restored King Alfred's line.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 18
1066, "William the Conqueror" and his Normans and mercenaries took control of Britain.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 19
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 20
1258, the "Provisions of Oxford", first official document to use English since the Norman Conquest.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 21
1350-1400, period of great literary production in Britain.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 22
Modern-English Period, A.D. 1500 to present.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 23
English writers used Greek and Latin to present their ideas.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 24
Human activities developed new objects and concepts, requiring new terms, many were still from Latin and Greek origins.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 25
Scientific presentations used Latin and Greek as their nomenclature.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 26
New inventions required more technical terms.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 27
Improved travel methods and communication have developed standards of speech.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 28
Uniformity of American English resulted from improved modes of travel and communication.
English and its Historical Development, Illustrated, Part 29
Space-age generation continues to utilize terms from Latin and Greek.
English and its Historical Development, Warrior Queen Boadicea Background
Getting better acquainted with Queen Boadicea.
English and its Historical Development, Warrior Queen Boudicca Rebellion Described by Tacitus
Tacitus describes rebellion of Boudicca, A.D. 60-61.
Ferrero, Guglielmo and Corrado Barbagallo
A Short History of Rome, Capricorn Books, New York, 1964.
This entry is located in the following unit: English History and its Development References (page 1)
Fields, Forests, Wild Animals, Flocks, and Shepherds: Pan, Faunus
Greek: Pan (god)
Latin: Faunus (god)

The god of nature. Symbols: goats and satyrs.

This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 1)
fighting like cats and dogs; fight like cats and dogs
To argue a lot or in a very forceful and angry way: Shareen's sister and husband seemed to be always fighting like cats and dogs.
This entry is located in the following unit: cat, cats (page 1)
Fire and the Forge: Hephaestus, Vulcan
Greek: Hephaestus (god)
Latin: Vulcan (god)

The god of fire and of workers in metal. Symbols: anvil and forge.

This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 1)
First or top position, King of the gods and ruler of mankind.
Greek: Zeus
Latin: Jupiter (Jove)

Symbols: Eagle, thunderbolts, and oak.

This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses of the Olympic Council (page 1)
Flags of the World with Countries and Languages
Twelve groups of World Flags are available in these units which describe the various countries, principalities, dependencies, etc. of the world including the various related languages.

You make take advantage of the following flag units with a simple click:

Flags of the World, Part 1 (Afghanistan to Azerbaijan)

Flags of the World, Part 2 (Bahamas to Burundi)

Flags of the World, Part 3 (Cambodia to Czech Republic)

Flags of the World, Part 4 (Denmark to French Southern Territories)

Flags of the World, Part 5 (Gabon to Hungary)

Flags of the World, Part 6 (Iceland to Luxembourg)

Flags of the World, Part 7 (Macao City to Mynamar)

Flags of the World, Part 8 (Namibia to Nunavut, Canadian Territory

Flags of the World, Part 9 (Oman to Rwanda)

Flags of the World, Part 10 (Helena to Syria)

Flags of the World, Part 11 (Taiwan to Tuvalu)

Flags of the World, Part 12 (Uganda to Zimbabwe)

This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 3)
founder and sink
Founder means to "sink below the surface".
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 9)
Fruits and Fruit Trees: Pomona
Greek: (no equivalent goddess)
Latin: Pomona (goddess)
This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 1)
General and Applied Entomology

V.A. Little, Professor Emeritus of Entomology; Texas A&M University; Harper & Row, Publishers; New York; 1972.

This entry is located in the following unit: Bibliography of Sources Regarding Habitat and Dwelling Environments (page 1)
give and bequeath
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 9)
Global Positioning System (GPS): Segway and GPS
Segway, a modern invention, offers GPS with their transporter.
This entry is located in the following unit: Global Positioning System (GPS): Index of Articles (page 1)
God of sea, horses, and earthquakes.
Greek: Poseidon
Latin: Neptune

Symbols: Trident (three pronged spear), dolphins, and horses.

This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses of the Olympic Council (page 1)
God of sun, music, poetry, and medicine.
Greek: Phoebus Apollo
Latin: Phoebus Apollo

Symbols: Lyre (musical instrument resembling a harp), arrows, and sun chariot.

This entry is located in the following units: gods and goddesses of the Olympic Council (page 1) musico-, music- + (page 1)
half a dozen of one and six of another
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 10)
have and hold
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 10)
Health: Alcohol and Brain Alterations
The dangers of alcohol to the brain and bodily functions.
This entry is located in the following units: alcoholo-, alcohol-, alcoho- (page 3) Health: Index of Articles (page 1)
Health: Alcohol and Brain Alterations: Hygeia
Greek: Hygeia (goddess)
Latin: (no equivalent)

Various spellings: Hygeia, Hygea, Hygia; personification of health and healthy. We now have the derived word hygiene, the science of health, pertaining to health, healthful, living well; the science that deals with the upkeep of health; system of principles or rules for preserving and/or promoting health.

Hygeia, goddess of health.
Word Info image © ALL rights reserved.
Health: Pedicure and Bacterial Infection
Itching spots on legs have turned into ulcerated sores from some salons that have been using whirlpool spas that soothe feet prior to a pedicure.
Hindi days; Vikramaditya and (Christian) days
somva\r (Monday)
mang’l, ma{ngava\r (Tuesday)
budhva\r (Wednesday)
guruva\r, br≥haspativa\r (Thursday)
s;ukrava\r, shukravar (Friday)
s;aniva\r, shanivar (Saturday)
itva\r, itvahr, raviva\r (Sunday)
This entry is located in the following unit: Calendar Names of Days and Months in Different Languages (page 4)
I'm supposed to respect my elders, but it's getting harder and harder for me to find one now.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 4)
Ideas and Insights Speech, Section 1
Remarks by Godfrey Harris: How you get them and what to do with them, Part 1.
Ideas and Insights Speech, Section 2
Remarks by Godfrey Harris: How you get them and what to do with them, Part 2.
Ideas and Insights Speech, Section 3
Remarks by Godfrey Harris: How you get them and what to do with them, Part 3.
Ideas and Insights Speech, Section 4
Remarks by Godfrey Harris: How you get them and what to do with them, Part 4.
Ideas and Insights Speech, Section 5
Remarks by Godfrey Harris: How you get them and what to do with them, Part 5.
If you ever get on a passenger place and recognize a friend named Jack, don't shout "Hi Jack!"
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 4)
Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) Bands
A group of unlicensed frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Knowledge: People and Their Influences
Influences on humanity from the past and in the present.
last will and testament
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 12)
Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group A

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group A.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group B

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group B.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group C

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group C.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group D

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group D.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group E

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group E.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group F

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group F.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group G

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group G.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group H

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group H.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group I

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group I.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group J

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group J.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group L

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group L.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group M

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group M.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group N

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group N.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group O

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group O.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group P

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group P.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group Q

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group Q.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group R

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group R.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group S

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group S.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group T

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group T.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group U

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group U.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group V

Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group V.

Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group X

Expressions of general truths: Greek through Latin to English maxims, proverbs, phrases, and words: Group X.

Law and Justice: Themis, Justitia
Greek: Themis (goddess)
Latin: Justitia (goddess)
This entry is located in the following units: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 1) jus-, just-, jur- (page 4)
Limbo Parts 1 and 2
Neither heaven nor hell, Limbo, Part 1 and Part 2, may no longer have a place in Roman Catholic Church beliefs.
This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 3)
Literature and the Arts and Sciences: Muses, Camenae
Greek: Muses (goddesses); Calliope (eloquence and epic poetry, Clio (history), Erato (erotic lyric poetry), Euterpe (music and lyric poetry), Melpomene (tragedy), Polyhymnia (sacred poetry), Terpsichore (dance), Thalia (comedy and pastoral poetry), Urania (astronomy)
Latin: Camenae (nymphs); who possess prophetic powers and inhabit springs and fountains; later identified with the Greek Muses.
littoral fauna and flora (s) (noun, littoral faunas and floras (pl)
Animals and plants inhabiting the sea-shore and the shallow sea near the shore.
This entry is located in the following units: faun-, fauni-, fauna-, -fauna (page 3) flori-, flor-, flora-, -florous + (page 5)
Love and Beauty: Aphrodite, Venus
Greek: Aphrodite (goddess)
Latin: Venus (goddess)

The goddess of love and beauty. Symbols: doves and sparrows.

This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 2)
meandering back and forth and all around *
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 13)
Mechatronic Research and Development
This entry is located in the following units: Information Technology (IT): Units Listed (page 2) -tron, -tronic, -tronics + (page 13)
Medicine and Healing: Asclepius, Aesculapius
Greek: Asclepius (god)Aesculapius with snake on staff.
Latin: Aesculapius (god)

The Aesculapius staff is considered to be the appropriate symbol of medicine, not the Mercury caduceus. The Mercury symbol is incorrectly used by many U.S. medical organizations; especially by military units.


Metric Units Chart and Links
Presenting terms of metrics or metric names, symbols, and numerical factors with links to all of the metrics.
This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 3)
Microbes and Man

John Postgate; Penguin Books, Inc.; New York; 1986.

This entry is located in the following unit: Bibliography of Sources Regarding Habitat and Dwelling Environments (page 1)
milieu (s), mileux (pl), and milieus
1. The surroundings, environment, or settings that someone lives in and is influenced by.
2. Surroundings; especially, of a social or cultural nature: "She appeared to have a snobbish milieu this morning."
3. Environment: "surroundings"; from French, "middle, medium, mean"; literally, "middle place", from mi, "middle" [from Latin medius] + lieu, "place".
This entry is located in the following unit: medio-, medi- (page 5)
Moon, Wild Animals, Youth, and Hunting: Artemis, Diana
Greek: Artemis (goddess); earlier, goddess of the moon: Selene
Latin: Diana (goddess); earlier, goddess of the moon: Luna

The goddess of the moon and hunting, patroness of maidens. Symbols: the crescent, stag, and arrows.

This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 2)
Mottoes, Slogans, Proverbs, Adages, Words of Wisdom: Latin and Greek to English Units
Units of Latin-Greek mottoes with English translations.
This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 3)
Nanotechnology and Anticipated Advancements
A wide range of applications for nanotechnology is anticipated.
This entry is located in the following unit: Nanotechnology: Index of Articles (page 1)
Nanotechnology: Basics and Fundamentals
This article will describe what nano means.
This entry is located in the following unit: Nanotechnology: Index of Articles (page 1)
null and void
1. No longer valid.
2. Having no force, binding power, or validity.
3. Invalid, unenforceable, having no legal force or effect.
4. Without value, effect, consequence, or significance.
5. Being or amounting to nothing; nil; lacking; nonexistent.
This entry is located in the following units: nul-, null-, nulli- + (page 1) Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 15)
Patrick and Patricia
Masculine and feminine names (in sequence shown) from Latin patricius, a patrician.
This entry is located in the following unit: pater-, patri-, patro-, patr-, -patria (page 3)
Pleasure, Charm, and Beauty in Human Life and in Nature: Graces
Greek: Graces (goddesses); Aglaia (brilliance); Euphrosyne (joy); Thalia (bloom)
Latin: (no equivalent goddess)
This entry is located in the following units: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 2) nasc-, nat- (page 5)
Pluto and his underworld kingdom

In the mythological age of the Roman gods, the world was divided into regions, each ruled by a god. The Infernal Regions, Hades, Death, and Cemeteries fell to the governance of Pluto, son of Cronus and Rhea.

As a reward for this rather solemn obligation, he was given the guardianship of riches, of all the precious metals, and stones that are buried deep in the earth.

The appearance of Pluto on earth was never a happy event, because his mission was always to take back to his kingdom the spirits of the dead. Riding up from the bowels of the earth in a chariot drawn by four coal-black steeds, he inspired fear in the hearts of humans.

Pluto's kingdom was almost impossible to reach without his permission, since it was located deep in the underworld guarded by huge Cerberus, the three-headed dog.

Near Pluto's throne were placed the seats of his three judges, Aeacus, Minos, and Rhadamanthus, who questioned the newly-arrived souls. These hearings were enacted before Themis, the blindfolded, impartial goddess, whose sword of justice hung above the new arrvials.

If the souls were proven to be good, they were led away to the Elysian Fields; if not, they were forever committed to the infernal regions of Tartarus. While the souls were being judged, Pluto, it is said, amused himself by writing their epitaphs.

—Compiled from "Tribute to Pluto"
in A book of Epitaphs by Raymond Lamont Brown;
Taplinger Publishing Company, Inc.; New York; 1967; page 13.
This entry is located in the following unit: Quotes: Epitaphs (page 1)
Poem: The Blind Men and the Elephant by John Godfrey Saxe
A popular poem about the differences of perceptions regarding an elephant as expressed by six blind men.
This entry is located in the following unit: Poems: Index (page 1)
Poems: Richard Cory and The Rich Man
Two poems that refer to wealthy people with a twist. See "Richard Cory" and "The Rich Man" for two poems with surprising conclusions.
This entry is located in the following unit: Poems: Index (page 1)
Portals and Beginnings and Endings: Janus
Greek: (no equivalent god)
Latin: Janus (god)
This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 2)
positive and negative ions; cation, cations; anion, anions
Any atom or group of atoms that bears one or more positive or negative electrical charges.

Positively charged ions are called cations; negatively charged ions are labeled, anions.

Ions are formed by the addition of electrons to, or the removal of electrons from, neutral atoms or molecules or other ions; by combination of ions with other particles; or by rupture of a covalent bond between two atoms in such a way that both of the electrons of the bond are left in association with one of the formerly bonded atoms.

Examples of these processes include the reaction of a sodium atom with a chlorine atom to form a sodium cation and a chloride anion; the addition of a hydrogen cation to an ammonia molecule to form an ammonium cation; and the dissociation of a water molecule to form a hydrogen cation and a hydroxide anion.

Many crystalline substances are composed of ions held in regular geometric patterns by the attraction of the oppositely charged particles for each other.

Ions migrate under the influence of an electrical field and are the conductors of electric current in electrolytic cells.

—Compiled from "ions, positive and negative", Encyclopædia Britannica; 2010;
Encyclopædia Britannica Online; May 22, 2010.
This entry is located in the following unit: ion, ion- + (page 10)
production and interrelation of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's equations
Four equations, formulated by James Clerk Maxwell, that together form a complete description of the production and interrelation of electric and magnetic fields.

The statements of these four equations are as follows:

  1. Electric field diverges from electric charge.
  2. There are no isolated magnetic poles.
  3. Electric fields are produced by changing magnetic fields.
  4. Circulating magnetic fields are produced by changing electric fields and by electric currents.

Maxwell based his description of electromagnetic fields on these four statements.

pure and simple (phrase)
Used for emphasis: When Billy deliberately bumped into Jenny in the hallway after English class, it was revenge, pure and simple, because she told their teacher that he was cheating on the vocabulary quiz.
This entry is located in the following unit: purg- (page 1)
Quotes: Descriptions and Similes Vividly Expressed
Vivid expressions: descriptive quotes.
Quotes: Quizzes and Tests
World's easiest quiz: quiz quotes.
This entry is located in the following unit: Quotes: Quotations Units (page 6)
rags and tatters
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 18)
rain cats and dogs (verb), rains cats and dogs; rained cats and dogs; raining cats and dogs
To rain very hard or heavily: When Jill looked out of the window during the storm, she said, "We can't go shopping now because it's raining cats and dogs!"
A deluge of rain.
© ALL rights are reserved.

Go to this Word A Day Revisited Index
so you can see more of Mickey Bach's cartoons.

This entry is located in the following unit: cat, cats (page 1)
reciprocal inhibition and desensitization (s) (noun); reciprocal inhibitions and desensitizations (pl)
In psychiatry, a form of behavior therapy in which the patient, while made to relax in comfortable surroundings, is gradually exposed to increasing amounts of anxiety-provoking stimuli.

In this way the patient can tolerate these stimuli and may eventually learn to dissociate the anxiety from them.

This entry is located in the following units: habit-, hab-, -hibit; habili-, habil- (page 5) reciproc- (page 1)
redundancies, tautologies, and pleonasms
This entry is located in the following units: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 18) tauto-, taut- + (page 1)
rest and relaxation
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 19)
river and wetland habitat (s) (noun), river and wetland habitats (pl)
Various areas that are saturated with water; either seasonally or permanently and that consist of landscapes that have dense vegetation: "River and wetland habitats have a significant variety and quantity of animals and plants living in them."
This entry is located in the following unit: Habitats for the Living (page 1)
Robot Origins and Characteristics of Robots
Originally from a Czech word robota, "force work", we now have robots and robotics, words which take us to manufactured devices that are capable of doing work ordinarily done by human beings.
This entry is located in the following unit: Robots and Robotics: A Directory or Index (page 1)
Robots and Robotics: Index of Units
This entry is located in the following unit: Information Technology (IT): Units Listed (page 2)
Robots, Robotic Topics, and Robot References
A variety of miscellaneous and scientific robotic terms and applications.
This entry is located in the following unit: Robots and Robotics: A Directory or Index (page 1)
Sarchasm: the gulf between the author of sarcastic wit and the recipient who doesn’t get it.
shape and form
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 20)
situation is calm and quiet
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 20)
Sorcery and Witchcraft; Earlier, the Moon, Earth, and the Underworld: Hecate, Trivia
Greek: Hecate (goddess)
Latin: Trivia (goddess, whose name means “of the three ways” because, like Hecate, she was worshipped at crossroads)
This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 3)
Story Translation: The Lupus and the Tragas
This entry is located in the following unit: Story Translations Listed (page 1)
Strife and Discord: Eris, Discordia
Greek: Eris (goddess)
Latin: Discordia (goddess)
This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 3)
Suburbia: Where they cut down the trees and then name streets after them.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 6)
Symbiosis: As Seen in This Hippo and Tortoise Relationship
Animals: An Example of a Symbiotic Relationship.
This entry is located in the following unit: Animal Index (page 1)
Tautologies and Pleonasms
Tautologous expressions are often used in legal documents for clarification of meaning; such as, "will and testament" and "breaking and entering".

This practice may have been a result of expressing English documents with a mixture of Anglo-Saxon and French, or Latin terms.

When early writers weren't sure if both designations had the same meaning, or that others might not have a clear understanding of the French or Latin, they apparently included terms from both the Anglo-Saxon and the "foreign"; words side by side, just to be sure others understood what was meant. This is according to David Crystal in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language.

Pleonasms are the opposites (antonyms) of oxymora. A pleonasm consists of two concepts (usually two words) that are redundant. What does "redundant" mean? Well, how about "more than enough; overabundant; excessive; and superfluous"?

Still having a problem understanding what pleonasm means? Some pleonastic expressions are also known as tautologies. Tautology means, "needless repetition of an idea in a different word, phrase, or sentence; redundancy; pleonasm". All right, what about pleonasm? Well, it means, "the use of more words than are necessary for the expression of an idea; redundancy".

So it is that we go around in circles: pleonasm means tautology, which means redundancy, which means pleonasm, which means tautology, ad infinitum.

This entry is located in the following units: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 21) tauto-, taut- + (page 1)
threat and vulnerability assessment (s) (noun), threat and vulnerability assessments (pl)
In antiterrorism, a threat and vulnerability assessment involves the pairing of a facility's threat analysis and vulnerability analysis.
—Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms;
US Department of Defense.
This entry is located in the following units: -ability (page 9) vulner- (page 1)
To be sure of hitting the target, shoot first and then say that whatever you hit was the target you were aiming at.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 6)
Tomorrow: one of the greatest labor saving devices from the past, to the present, and for the future.
Tongue and Human Functions, part 1

The human tongue and its functions

About the only interest a person has in the tongue is when something abnormal happens; such as, when there is pain or if some unusual taste factor exists as when there is burning from excessive heat, when accidentally bitten, or when exposed to strong flavors which are spicy, bitter, sweet, sour, etc.

Since the human tongue usually stays out of sight, it is is not considered as valuable as other sensory parts of the body, but if people think they can get along without their tongues, they should re-evaluate this misconception.

For example, when a person extends the tongue out of the mouth and lightly clamps on it between the teeth, then if that person tries to talk, let him/her see if speech under such circumstance can be understood.

A tongue is particularly important with the mastication, or chewing, of food by rolling it around in the mouth so such materials are evenly broken up and made more acceptable to the stomach for digestion. A tongue assists in swallowing when the front part presses against the hard palate in the roof of the mouth. This is followed by having the back part of the tongue hump up, thrusting food into the passage that leads to the esophagus.

Although it may seem to be a simple activity, it is really a necessary function that is conducted by nerves and executed by intricate muscles. A person usually knows how to swallow before being born, which is an indication of how important the swallowing reflex is to one's existence.

Speaking is another consideration because a person must be trained for such extraordinary neuromuscular activities. A baby normally experiments with sounds for two, or more, years before being able to form simple sentences. As people get older, the tongue is able to flex itself into many various shapes for more complex expressions.

Anyone who would like to get a better idea of the tongue's complex activities should concentrate on its various movements while talking.

—Compiled from excerpts located in
Your Body & How It Works by J.D. Ratcliff; Reader's Digest Press and Delacorte Press;
Pleasantville, NY; 1975; pages 60-66.
This entry is located in the following units: funct-, fungi- + (page 4) Tongue: How it Works (page 1)
Tongue and Human Functions, part 2

A slab of mucous membrane enclosing a complex array of muscles and nerves

The upper surface of the tongue has an array of papillae (puh PIL lee), or tiny projections, some of which contain taste buds. Also, arranged among the taste buds are taste cells, which actually receive the sensations of taste.

On the underside of the tongue is a tiny cord, the frenulum, and if it is too short, it holds back normal movements which is known as being "tongue-tied". People with this problem once went through their lives with garbled speech; however, today, this defect can be corrected with surgery.

The tongue is an organ that gives people a great deal of service but too often it is held in low esteem. Normally, people pay less attention to the tongue than they do to their hair or fingernails which are not nearly as important to their well-being.

Despite such neglect, the tongue usually continues to tirelessly function as it tastes and talks throughout our lives.

—Compiled from excerpts located in
Your Body & How It Works by J.D. Ratcliff; Reader's Digest Press and Delacorte Press;
Pleasantville, NY; 1975; pages 60-66.
This entry is located in the following units: funct-, fungi- + (page 4) Tongue: How it Works (page 1)
Tongue and Human Functions, part 3

More facts about the tongue

The tongue has about 10,000 taste receptors.
  • They are called taste buds, but "taste hairs" would be a more accurate name in that these receptors project like hairs from the walls of the tiny trenches that run between the bumps on your tongue.
  • When you eat, the receptors send signals to the brain, which translates the signals into combinations of sweet, bitter, salty, and sour tastes.
Newborn babies have few taste buds.
  • Soon after birth, more buds begin to grow, an by early childhood they cover the top and some of the bottom of the tongue, as well as areas in the cheeks and throat.
  • Since young children have many more taste buds blooming in their mouths than adults, they frequently find foods to be too bitter or too spicy.
  • Some adults seek out bitter or spicy foods because of a declining number of taste buds.
  • In children and adults, each taste bud lives a matter of days before it is replaced.
Different parts of the tongue are sensitive to different tastes.
  • The four primary tastes; such as, sweet, bitter, salty, and sour, are each associated with a specific area on the tongue.
  • The tip of the tongue is most sensitive to sweet and salty tastes, while sour seems to register more strongly on the sides of the tongue.
  • Far to the rear of the tongue, grouped in a V-shape, are most of the receptors for bitter tastes.
The taste buds account for less than twenty percent of the flavors of food.
  • The sense of smell, with its own separate receptors, mostly determines what we experience as taste.
  • The temperature and texture of food also contribute to its overall flavor.
  • Oddly one's sensitivity to saltiness and bitterness seems to increase as food cools, sensitivity to sweetness increases with heat.
  • A piece of chocolate may have very little taste when cold, taste fine at room temperature, but seem unpleasantly sweet when hot and half-melted.
—Compiled from excerpts located in
ABC's of the Human Mind edited by Alma E. Guinness; The Reader's Digest Association, Inc.;
Pleasantville, NY; 1990; page 143.

Tongue prints are as unique as fingerprints.
—David Louis
This entry is located in the following units: funct-, fungi- + (page 4) Tongue: How it Works (page 1)
Tongues and Animals

Information about tongue functions with animals

They're skinny, thick, colored, sometimes sticky, occasionally nubbed flabs of flesh that dangle in the mouths of virtually every mammal, bird, reptile, fish and amphibian on earth.

Tongues, as we know these universal appendages, can zap prey, slurp water, groom a friendly shoulder, shovel food, taste, twist, and enable their owners to make precise sounds.

The tongue presents a great anatomical puzzle. It is essentially solid muscle, but muscle by itself is usually useless.

A muscle, that can perform work only by contracting, becomes useful when attached to something rigid like bone.

When the muscle shortens, it pulls bones this way or that, providing the owner all sorts of mobility. For example, chameleons have a bone at the base of their tongues. Squeezing muscles against it makes the long tongue squirt out with extra force.

A tongue's muscles mingle at all sorts of angles, butting into each other head-on, stringing through a central core, curling around the outside like vines.

For a given motion, one muscle group tenses and another one pulls the tensed group as if it were one. In a split second, groups trade roles so the tongue can flick the opposite way.

—Compiled from excerpts located in
"What a Mouthful!"; International Wildlife, March-April, 1995; pages 45-48.
This entry is located in the following unit: Tongue: How it Works (page 1)
useless and unnecessary
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 24)
vacillating back and forth *
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 24)
vegetation and ecosystem mapping
An art and a science concerned with the drawing of maps that locate different kinds of plant cover in a geographic area.
This entry is located in the following unit: veget-, vege- (page 2)
Vocabulary Quizzes: English Words from Latin and Greek Origins
Lists of Vocabulary Self-Scoring Quzzes and Tests; another approach to learning English words.
This entry is located in the following unit: Special Contents of Interest (page 4)
Vocabulary Quizzes: English Words from Latin and Greek Origins
An index of a variety of self-scoring Vocabulary Quizzes, from word units.
watching and observing
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 24)
Wear short sleeves and then you can support your right to bare arms.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 6)
will and testament
This entry is located in the following unit: Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies (page 24)
Wine and Revelry: Dionysus, Bacchus
Greek: Dionysus (god, also called Bacchus)
Latin: Bacchus; as well as, Liber (god). Liber was also associated with Libera, goddess of the vine.

The god of wine and of an orgiastic religion celebrating the power and fertility of nature, drama, and revelry.

Symbols: ivy, grapes, and leopards or panthers.

This entry is located in the following units: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 3) vino-, vin-, vini- (page 3)
Wisdom, Technical Skill, and Invention: Pallas Athena, Minerva
Greek: Pallas Athena (goddess)
Latin: Minerva (goddess)

The goddess of wisdom, war, and weaving.

Symbols: the Aegis (a shield on which was fixed the head of Medusa, a woman with snakes instead of hair on her head, whose look turned beholders into stone)

This entry is located in the following unit: gods and goddesses from Greek and Latin Myths (page 3)
With her marriage, Shirley got a new name and a dress.
Women will never be equal to men until they can walk down the street with a bald head and a beer gut, and still think they are attractive.
This entry is located in the following unit: paraprosdokian, paraprosdokia (page 7)
write-once and read-many tag, WORM
A tag that can be part or totally programmed once by the user and afterward only read others.
This entry is located in the following unit: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): Definitions (page 10)
A unit at Get Words related to: “and
(origins of "arena" and "clue")
(the origins and more recent usage as a term used in the performances of prestidigitation or "magic")
(a system of sounds for each symbol)
(the structure of organisms from the smallest components of cells to the biggest organs and their relationships to other organs especially of the human body)
(the science of bodily structures and parts as discovered and developed over the centuries by means of dissections)
(Egyptians suffered with a variety of physical complaints despite healthier habits among ancient nations)
(Latin: to give "life to" and so, showing movements)
(terms restricted to the study of social insects; such as, ants and words that apply generally to entomology)
(a glossary of archeological terms particularly related to the field of research that can tell us about our origins and our remote past)
(the science of the celestial bodies: the sun, the moon, and the planets; the stars and galaxies; and all of the other objects in the universe)
(a world of Biblical information for everyone who wants to know more about the Bible and its contents and the world from which it became known)
(sources of information for the various terms listed in the Index of Scientific and Technological Topics)
(Dr. Rocke Robertson collected more than 600 dictionaries and many other books; a true dictionary bibliophile)
(Dr. Rocke Robertson collected more than 600 dictionaries and many other books; a true dictionary bibliophile)
(Dr. Rocke Robertson collected more than 600 dictionaries and many other books; a true dictionary bibliophile)
(more information about Dr. Harold Rocke Robertson donated by his son, Ian Robertson)
(Algenol, an algae strain of microscopic plantlike organisms that feed off sunlight and carbon dioxide; a biofuel greener and cheaper than oil or corn-fed ethanol)
(a glossary of biological terms about living creatures including plants and all kinds of animal species and organisms)
(a collective term for all organic substances of relatively recent, non-geological, origin which can be used for energy production)
(delusional, narcissistic, vengeful, and profane)
(the relative locations of sections of the body, or bodily organs, and their actions and activities)
(what resembles an odd marriage between Trojan battle gear and Medusa is actually part of the most powerful brain scanner ever made)
(the most deadly five "enemies" of the brain: depression, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, stroke, and autism)
(words that end with cate and are pronounced KAYT)
(architects are using stylish high-tech concrete to create beautiful and greener buildings)
(the hundred-degree temperature interval gave us the name scale of centigrade from the Latin centum, "hundred" and gradus, "step")
(English phrases which are often badly phrased on signs in public places and other media)
(all of the enhanced units present parts of speeches (when applicable), have definitions for word entries, and clarifying sentences in context)
(Jekyll-and-Hyde words; words that have two distinctly contrary or even opposite meanings)
(lexicomedy, linguicomedy, or a chuckleglossary consisting of definitions which are markedly different from the accepted dictionary norm)
(New plagues, survival, and the various mutual adaptations carried on with our microbial fellow travelers)
(New diseases are always coming into existence, most change with time, and some even vanish from known existence!)
(Until recently, the usual explanation for the first pandemics was not biological but a result of immorality)
(dogs are considered to be the companions and best friends of humans and this list of terms will help all of us understand the topics that exist about our canine friends)
(a suffix that forms abstract and collective nouns added to adjectives to show state or condition; added to nouns to show a position, rank, or realm of; all of those who are part of a group or organization)
(conceptions of dreams from different cultures and during different historical periods)
(economics involves business and financial activities that show how people choose to use their limited resources (land, labor, and capital goods) to produce, exchange, and to consume goods and services)
(excerpts and compilations from the news about international economic activities)
(electricity has become one of the most significant areas of study in the world)
(electricity and magnetic forces are combined for efficiency)
(concern over the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels has resulted in looking for alternative fuels that are less polluting)
(this summary of English history is continued from the Get Words home page)
(the language of a group of American Indian tribes that lived in the valleys of the Ottawa River and of the northern tributaries of the St. Lawrence River)
(A history of the English Language)
(languages spoken by over 400 closely related groups in central, east-central, and southern Africa, belonging to the South Central subgroup of the Niger-Congo language family and including Swahili, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Zulu, Xhosa, etc.)
(the language of France is also spoken in Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, Haiti, Monaco, New Caledonia, and several other countries including some areas of the U.S.; such as, Louisiana and some New England states)
(an alphabetized listing of links to a world of the uncompromising multi-purpose, majestic, and fathomable universe of words)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(a variety of English words which have developed through history and are currently used in our modern age)
(an extensive list of words with explanations that can expand and greatly improve your English vocabulary)
(ecology is the study of the relationship between organisms and the environments in which they live, including all living and nonliving components)
(enhance your English vocabulary by taking advantage of word origins)
(Greek: eu, "good, well; sounding good" + pheme, "speaking, speech"; mild, agreeable, or roundabout words used in place of coarse, painful, or offensive ones)
(characterized by speed and efficiency, or carried out promptly and efficiently)
(here are 14 important words with elements from Latin and Greek sources)
(the four gemstones which are most valuable are diamonds, sapphires, rubies, and emeralds; and anyone would be impressed with a gift of a diamond, a sapphire, an emerald, or a ruby piece of jewelry)
(geography includes mapmakers, scientists, explorers of the earth and provides a way to look at both the physical world and the people who live in various parts this globe)
(a glossary, or dictionary, of terms used in geology; the science of the earth including its origin, composition, structure, and history)
(when visiting old graveyards and examining the epitaphs on gravestones, there are certain words and phrases which could be difficult or impossible to understand without knowing what the words in this unit mean)
(understanding how English words are formed and where they come from helps everyone who finds unfamiliar words)
(medical professionals and scientists who specialize in designated areas of medical care)
(Herodotus extended his historical coverage beyond the Greek world to the lives, ways, and beliefs of the people with whom the Greeks and the Persians came into contact)
(the science of water which denotes the study of the properties, distribution, and movements of water on land surfaces, in the soil, and through the subsurface rocks of the earth)
(a description in which plants can be produced in containers filled with water and a number of other non-soil contents)
(Idioms and their possible meanings)
(Latin punctus "a point" or "a mark"; the standardized non-alphabetical symbols or marks that are used to organize writing into clauses, phrases, and sentences, and in this way to clarify meanings)
(access a variety of topics regarding science and technology)
(Historical perspectives of the Reader's Digest)
(a few words from the Reader's Digest, March, 1932)
(a few words from the Reader's Digest, July, 1940)
(a compilation of excerpts and quotes from past issues of magazines and books so they won't be lost in the present)
(a glossary of terms relating to the decoration and design of interior spaces in buildings)
(Italian developed from Latin and the following words came into English from Italian; most of which were derived from Latin)
(perspectives regarding verbal and written communications)
(the first Latin words to find their way into the English language owe their adoption to the early contact between the Roman and the Germanic tribes on the European continent and Greek came with Latin and French while others were borrowed directly; especially, in the fields of science and technology)
(a natural element to help people everywhere)
(just a few of the many important words with several applications in common practice and referring to special technical and scientific operations)
(mathematics is the deductive study of quantities, magnitudes, and shapes as determined by the use of numbers and symbols while every branch of science and engineering depends on mathematics; measurement is the process of associating numbers with physical quantities and phenomena and measurement is fundamental to the sciences; to engineering, construction, and other technical fields; and to almost all everyday activities)
(learning more about the progress of medicine throughout the centuries)
(terms about the science and technology of metals and metal processing)
(topics about the study of the complex motions and interactions of the atmosphere, including the observation of phenomena; such as, temperature, density, winds, clouds, and precipitation)
(the Mexican marijuana trade is more robust and brazen than ever before)
(composed of varied things or made up of many different things or kinds of things that have no necessary connection with each other; from Latin miscellaneus, from miscellus, "mixed"; and derived from miscere, "to mix")
(the advantages of self determination in fulfilling your objectives and belief in your aspirations can improve your mental control and enhance your health)
(the study of the deep seas or oceans involves the abyss or the "deep seas" which cover almost two-thirds of the earth's surface; showing applicable scientific terminology in this unit)
(a science that attempts to discover the fundamental principles of the sciences, the arts, and the world that the sciences and arts influence)
(solar electricity technical terms applying to electricity, power generation, concentrating solar power, or CSP, solar heating, solar lighting, and solar electricity)
(based on words from The Washington Post's "Style Invitational" in which readers were given the opportunity to take any word from the dictionary, alter it by adding, subtracting, or changing one letter, and then to provide a new definition for the modified word)
(poetic, figures of speech, and words primarily referring to the content of various types of poems)
(words to live by, to inspire, and to give guidance)
(this page includes a presentation of the punctuation marks or symbols that are in general use in English writing)
(symbols at the beginning and end of a word or groups of words)
(reversible English words that can be spelled forward and backward and still produce normal words with different meanings)
(background information about robots and applicable robotic terms)
(over the past century, knowledge of the way the universe works [science] has grown significantly, and with it the ability to apply that knowledge to everyday problems [technology] has changed the way people live)
(terms appearing in some "scientific" areas from about 2000 B.C. to 1799 A.D.)
(terms appearing in some "scientific" areas from about 1800 A.D. to 1899 A.D.)
(the spread of information with the "wiring" of the world has improved communications between people and accelerated the pace of scientific discoveries as well as greater efficiency in the exchange of technical knowledge and applications)
(obscure verbal usages that challenge your comprehension as to what they mean)
(obscure verbal usages that challenge our comprehension as to what they mean)
(there is much more to learn about the mysterious processes of sleep and the things that disturb it)
(insects that live in colonies which, in some ways, resemble human cities are ants, bees, wasps, hornets, and termites)
(bibliographic sources of information from which words and topics have been compiled about scientific and technological topics)
(bibliographic sources of information from which words and sentences have been compiled about words and expressions English speakers should know for better understanding and communication)
(a comparison of synonymous references and their relationships to each other)
(engineering is the technical science in which properties of matter and the sources of power in nature are made useful to people; such as, in structures, devices, machines, and products)
(some of the common terms and abbreviations used by those who send out text messages)
(The name given to the plague that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351.)
(The name given to the plague that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351.)
(The name given to the plague that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351.)
(A poem that expresses misconceived judgements based on incomprehensible, or at least, inadequate information)
(Various living organisms are organized from the smallest unit of cells to form tissues which form organs and organs work together to form organ systems)
(theater as we know it was originated by the Greeks and many of their theatrical terms are still in use)
(historical perspectives of thermoscopes to thermometers: Daniel Fahrenheit, Galileo Galilei, Anders Celsius, and Lord Kelvin; among others, were major contributors to temperature calculations as we know them today)
(time waits for no one; use it or lose it)
(principal forms or tenses, functions, and conjugation formats)
(to make a careful and critical examination of something or to investigate someone thoroughly)
(A visual presentation of various plants, animals, insects and other forms of life in their environments)
(using definitions and a letter added to the beginning of the second word of two words with the same spellings will produce two completely different words)
(words exist in all sizes and degrees of difficulty from numerous languages and English continues to churn out new words from the past and the present)
(words being used in news media headlines, subheadings, and excerpts from applicable articles with certain words being listed in bold and defined separately)
(an exhibition of words that appear in headlines and sub-headlines which all of us should know)
(there are many words which may be rarely seen by a vast number of people; however, they have been existing and they are still available for one's use or enlightenment)
(a collection of English words that have been used in the titles of articles from various printed media)
(phyla rhymes or major taxonomic groups, classifying of living organisms, into which animals are divided and made up of several classes in poetic format)
Word Entries at Get Words containing the term: “and
1. Scientific method, observation and facts
The observation of phenomena and the recording of facts: the phenomena are what occurs in the environment; the facts are descriptions of what is observed.
This entry is located in the following unit: Measurements and Mathematics Terms (page 1)
2. Scientific method, formlation of physical laws and generalizations
The formulation of physical laws from the generalization of the phenomena: physical laws are the way nature usually behaves based on what has been observed in the past.
This entry is located in the following unit: Measurements and Mathematics Terms (page 1)
A message from someone who recently purchased a copy of Words for a Modern Age, A Cross Reference of Latin and Greek Combining Elements

John Robertson:

I received your book on 6/26/00. Congratulations on a great book. You no doubt spent a great amount of time in research. I find the book fascinating.

It’s been over 45 years since I studied Latin and Greek in college and unless one keeps it up, one tends to forget. You have rekindled my interest. Now that I’m retired, I’ll have more time. I have always been interested in the origin of words especially from Latin and Greek.

Because the schools do not teach Latin and Greek as they once did, your book would be invaluable in helping students with the English language; thereby enriching their thought process. I am so happy that we still have people in this world who regard knowledge of Latin and Greek essential to scholarly development.

To quote Seneca, Jr. from your book: “Non scholae, sed vitae discimus.” Thank you for your “illusions” and also many thanks to your wife.

Jeffrey

Note from your editor: The “illusions” referred to the dedication in Words for a Modern Age, A Cross Reference of Latin and Greek Combining Elements in which I wrote: “Dedicated to my wife, who has been my sine qua non. She has kept me in good health with her loving concern for my well being and has rarely interfered with my efforts to strive for my ‘illusions.’ ”

The Latin quotation by Seneca, Jr. means: “We don’t learn just for school, but we learn for life.”.




Speaking of books. The following came from "The Spelling Newsletter" published by Ray Laurita, Leonardo Press, PO Box 1326, Camden, ME 04843.


Can This Be True? Department

After reading the following exchange which appeared in the Metropolitan Diary, I have a feeling that our readers will be equally dismayed:

Carol Ruth Langer stopped at the information desk of a Barnes & Noble in Midtown to inquire about a copy of the Book of Job.


"How would you be spelling 'Job'?" the clerk asked.

"J -- O -- B", Ms. Langer said.

"Job books are in the career section."

Ms. Langer tried again. "Not job, Job, a book in the Bible".

"Who is the author" the clerk asked.


At that point, Ms. Langer knew it was time to leave.


As seen in the May 15, 2000, issue of the New York Times.
This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #11 (page 1)
abracadabra, its origins and more recent usage
The magic of abracadabra.
This entry is located in the following unit: Amazing Histories of Words (page 1)
Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology
Edited by Christopher Morris; Academic Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers; New York; 1992.
This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Science and Technology (page 1)
aid and abet (verb), aids and abets; aided and abetted; aiding and abetting
1. To help a person, or people, to commit a crime: The lawyer's client was aiding and abetting the bank robbers by driving the getaway car.
2. Etymology: This terminology is considered to be a lawyer's redundancy since abet means the same thing as aid, which gives credence to the old rumor that lawyers used to be paid by the word as illustrated by the following statements as shown below.

To help, assist, or to facilitate the commission of a crime, to promote the accomplishment thereof, to help in advancing or bringing it about, or to encourage, counsel, or to incite as to its commission.

Aid and abet includes all the assistance rendered by words, acts, encouragement, support, or presence, actual or constructive, to render assistance if necessary.

—Compiled from information provided by Black's Law Dictionary;
Sixth Edition; by Henry Campbell Black, M.A.; West Publishing Co.;
St. Paul, Minn; 1990, page 68.
This entry is located in the following unit: English Words in Action, Group A (page 3)
aiding and abetting (adjective), more aiding and abetting, most aiding and abetting
A reference to helping, assisting, or facilitating the commission of a crime and to promote the accomplishment thereof; as well as, to help in advancing or bringing it about, or encouraging it, counseling, or inciting its commission: The lawyer tried to reassure Jim that the aiding and abetting charge would not hold up in court.

Legally, aiding and abetting describes any and all assistance rendered by words, acts, encouragement, support, or presence, actual or constructive, and to render assistance, if necessary; and are obviously derived from a combination of aid and abet:

  • Aid means "to support, to help, to assist, or to strengthen".
  • Act in cooperation with; to supplement the efforts of another person or other people.
  • Distinguished from abet, aid within the aider and abettor statue means "to help, to assist", or "to strengthen"; while abet means "to counsel, to encourage, to incite, or to assist" in the commission of a criminal act.
—Compiled from information located in
Black's Law Dictionary, 6th edition; by Henry Campbell Black, M.A.;
West Publishing Co.; St. Paul. Minnesota; 1990; page 68.
This entry is located in the following unit: English Words in Action, Group A (page 3)
amber colophony and lacquer
Inferior amber and amber processing waste that can be made into amber colophony or rosin and amber oil, which are both raw materials for the production of high-quality amber varnish.
This entry is located in the following unit: amber (page 1)
Amphora: The word and the @ symbol
Greek > Latin: @ two-handled; a vessel with two handles or ears; a pitcher or vase unit.
An advanced word: tribo- and Its Modern Applications

The “advanced words” in the following contain valuable information if for no other reason than that the concepts of tribology are so important in all of our lives. You may find some aspects difficult to comprehend, but just knowing what the Greek element tribo means, as well as some of the English words that are derived from it, will give you knowledge that is lacking even among the very educated.


This issue of Focusing on Words will present a relatively new, and not widely known, element from Greek that is used in modern engineering and physics: tribology. This Greek tribo- element means, “friction”, “rub”, “grind”, or “wear away”.

Most of the information for this subject came from an article, “Better Ways to Grease Industry’s Wheels,” from the September 28, 1998, issue of Fortune magazine written by Ivan Amato.

  • Lubrication is central to machine performance, but it’s only part of the story. More and more, the bigger picture of machine health has been going by the label “tribology” [trigh BAH loh gee] which is based on the Greek word for “rubbing.”, “grinding”, or “wearing away”, etc.
  • Tribology combines issues of lubrication, friction, and wear into a complex framework for designing, maintaining, and trouble-shooting the whole machine world.
  • Tribology is already providing data that could be used to produce transmission fluids that give automobile drivers better fuel economy and a smoother ride.
  • The most visionary tribology advocates and practitioners tend to view their field as the cure for much of what ails industry and even entire economies.
  • Tribology has evolved into a bona fide field of research and technology since 1966, when a group of industrialists in England coined the term with assistance from an editor of the Oxford English Dictionary.
  • The O. E. D. defines tribology as, “The branch of science and technology concerned with interacting surfaces in relative motion and with associated matters (as friction, wear, lubrication, and the design of bearings).” In 1968, H.P. Jost, in the February 8, 1968, issue of the New Scientist states, “After consultation with the English Dictionary Department of the Oxford University Press, we chose the term ‘tribology’.”
  • Many tribologists devote themselves to uncovering the fundamental chemical and physical dramas that underlie good and bad lubrication, friction, and wear. They are relying on new tools like friction-force microscopes, that can examine surfaces down to the molecular level (nanotribology?).
  • Transmissions are just one place where tribology makes a difference in the automotive industry. Other items on the agenda include controlling brake noise and wear, reducing internal friction in engines, and increasing the productivity, part quality, and energy efficiency of production machinery.
  • The “tribology tribe” points proudly to its crucial role in the thirty-billion dollar-a-year data-storage industry. When it comes to surfaces in motion, this is an especially harrowing arena. Yet it’s through tribological know-how that makers of hard-disk drives have been able to squeeze more and more data into less and less space.
  • The head that reads and writes information to and from a hard disk flies about 50 to 100 nanometers above the disk surface. That’s about one-thousandth the width of a human hair. Meanwhile, the disk typically spins beneath the head at about ten to twenty meters per second.
  • Woody Monroy, head of corporate communications for Seagate Technology, which makes disk drives, says that in terms of speed and clearance, it’s the equivalent of an F-16 jet fighter plane flying one-sixty second of an inch [less than one millimeter] above the ground, counting blades of grass as it goes, at Mach 813 (or 813 times the speed of sound).
  • There are many reasons computers go down, but one of the most dreaded is when the head assembly literally crashes into the spinning disk’s surface, tearing up and destroying precious data.
  • It’s a tribological triumph that, despite all the hazards, vulnerabilities, and abuse by users, most storage systems operate fine most of the time because of proper coatings. The first protective layer is at most twenty nanometers thick. One leading-edge tribo-tactic is to fiddle with the molecular structure of the thin lubrication layer on top of the disk (nanotribology?).
  • Tribologists have plenty of challenges to keep them busy, but it’s all part of making disk drives and economies run smoothly.

This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #05 (page 1)
Anatomy and Related Anatomical Terms

Lists of anatomy and anatomical topics.

This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
Angioplasty Info and the Stent, Part 1
The reconstruction of blood vessels damaged by disease or injury usually performed by inflating a balloon inside the blood vessel lumen (tube) in order to reconstitute the flow of blood unit.
Arena: Blood, Sweat, and Cheers; Part 1 of 2
Latin: harena, "sand" or "arena" in English, became the general term for "shows" and now it refers more to "sports", etc. unit.
Asimov's Chronology of science and Discovery
Isaac Asimov; Harper & Row, Publishers; New York; 1989.
This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Science and Technology (page 1)
attorney-client confidentiality and privilege
Relation between a counsel and his/her client wherein any information exchanged between them will not be disclosed to others; such as, prosecutors.

Attorneys are protected from disclosing information about the clients they represent because of this privilege.

This entry is located in the following unit: Criminal Court Words or Judicial Terms + (page 4)
Bees and Flower
Two bees getting nectar from a flower.
—Photographed by Wolfram Bleul, E-mail: kontakt@wolframbleul.de

It appears that there are two honey bees getting nectar from a special flower.

This entry is located in the following unit: Views of Nature (page 1)
Biomass Elements and Uses
Scientific research into future energy sources via biomass elements.
This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 1)
Biomechatronics Research and Development
Combining "biology", "mechanics", and "electronics" unit.
Blind Men and the Elephant
The Blind Men and the Elephant by John Godfrey Saxe unit.
Blog, Blogs, and Blogging, Part 1 of 2
A Blog is Another Way to Express Our Selves When Writing on the Internet unit.
Brain Anxiety and Depression
Anxieties and depressions are brain-based unit.
Capnomania and Fumimania, Part 1 of 4
The Ballad of Salvation Bill by Robert W. Service and additional capnomania-fumimania information about smoking or addiction to tobacco smoke from the past to the present unit.
Capnophobia and Fumiphobia, Part 1 of 4
The fear and hatred of tobacco smoke or being around smokers and being exposed to smoking in general unit.
Cells and Their Compositions
Cytology is the study of cells and the cell theory states that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells arise only from other cells unit.
Cement and concrete; actually greener?
High-tech cement, concrete for greener buildings.
This entry is located in the following unit: Words at Work in the Print Media: INDEX (page 1)
Children yesterday and today
Time was kids used to play outdoors
With Fido, Spot, or Bowser;
But now they choose to stay indoors
With keyboard, mouse, and browser.
—Doris O'Brian
This entry is located in the following unit: Quotations (page 1)
China: The Country and Its Globalization Perspectives
Perceptions of China and the Chinese in their actual interrelationships with themselves and the rest of the world; as well as, the potential hazards and perils of their global dominance unit.
Criminal and Judicial Terms
Criminal Courts by Dean John Champion, Richard D. Hartley, and Gary A. Rabe; Pearson, Education, Inc.; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey; 2008.
This entry is located in the following unit: Bibliography or Lists of Glossary-Term Sources (page 1)
Dan Quayle and Groucho Marx Quotes

Dan Quayle quotes:


  • “A low voter turnout is an indication of fewer people going to the polls.”
  • “I believe we are on an irreversible trend toward more freedom and democracy, but that could change.”
  • “If we do not succeed, then we run the risk of failure.”
  • “I love California; I practically grew up in Phoenix.”
  • “I stand by all the misstatements that I’ve made.”
  • “It isn’t pollution that’s harming the environment. It’s the impurities in our air and water that are doing it.”
  • “One word sums up probably the responsibility of any vice-president, and that one word is “to be prepared.”
  • “People that are really very weird can get into sensitive positions and have a tremendous impact on history.”
  • “The future will be better tomorrow.”
  • “The Holocaust was an obscene period in our nation’s history. I mean in this century’s history. But we all lived in this century. I didn’t live in this century.”
  • “The loss of life will be irreplaceable.”
  • “We are ready for any unforeseen event that may or may not occur.”
  • “We have a firm commitment to NATO, we are a part of NATO. We have a firm commitment to Europe. We are a part of Europe.”
  • “We’re going to have the best-educated American people in the world.”
  • “What a waste it is to lose one’s mind. Or not to have a mind is being very wasteful. How true that is.”
  • “When I have been asked during these last weeks who caused the riots and the killing in L.A., my answer has been direct and simple: Who is to blame for the riots? The rioters are to blame."

    "Who is to blame for the killings? The killers are to blame.”

  • “Verbosity leads to unclear, inarticulate things.”

Groucho Marx quotes:


  • “A child of five would understand this. Send someone to fetch a child of five.”
  • “Either this man is dead or my watch has stopped.”
  • “I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set, I go into the other room and read a book.”
  • “I refuse to join any club that would have me as a member.”
  • “I’ve had a perfectly wonderful evening. But this wasn’t it.”
  • “Those are my principles, and if you don’t like them . . . well, I have others.”
  • “When I picked up your book I was so convulsed with laughter that I had to set it down, but one day I intend to read it.”
  • “Outside of a dog, a book is man’s best friend. Inside of a dog it’s too dark to read.”
  • “Some people claim that marriage interferes with romance. There’s no doubt about it. Anytime you have a romance, your wife is bound to interfere.”
This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #10 (page 1)
Dextro and Sinistro: Historical Origins
Latin: right and left unit.
Dictionaries and Lexicons, Parts One and Two
Historical and modern dictionaries unit.
Did they say what I think they said? Words from “great thinkers”, past and present.

  • “I’m not going to have some reporters pawing through our papers. We are the President.” —Attributed to Hillary Clinton, commenting about the release of subpoenaed documents

  • “Smoking kills, and if you’re killed, you’ve lost a very important part of your life.” —Attributed to Brooke Shields.

  • “We’re going to turn this team around 360 degrees.” —Attributed to Jason Kidd, upon his drafting to the Dallas Mavericks.

  • “The President has kept all of the promises he intended to keep.” —Attributed to Former Clinton aide, George Stephanopolous speaking on “Larry King Live.”

  • “China is a big country, inhabited by many Chinese.” —Attributed to Former French President, Charles de Gaulle.

  • “If you let that sort of thing go on, your bread and butter will be cut right out from under your feet.” —Attributed to Former British Foreign Minister, Ernest Bevin.

  • “The streets are safe in Philadelphia. It’s only the people that make them unsafe.” —Attributed to the former Philadelphia Mayor and Police Chief, Frank Rizzo

  • “When more and more people are thrown out of work, unemployment results” —Attributed to former U.S. President (30th), Calvin Coolidge

  • “They’re multipurpose. Not only do they put the clips on, but they take them off.” —Attributed to a Pratt and Whitney spokesperson explaining why the company charged the U.S. Air Force almost $1,000 for an ordinary pair of pliers.

  • “To have 20-year old girls jumping up and down in front of you is more effective than Viagra.” —Andy Williams, American singer, 70, whose song “Music to Watch Girls By” has seen a recent revival on British pop charts [as seen in Time magazine’s “Verbatim”, April 5, 1999].

  • “Freedom of the press must have restrictions.” —Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, Malaysia’s Deputy PM, after the judge in the sodomy trial of Anwar Ibrahim placed a gag order on the media [as seen in Time magazine’s “Verbatim”, May 17, 1999].

  • “Remember, they only name things after you when you’re dead or really old.” —Barbara Bush, former U.S. First Lady, as CIA headquarters was renamed after her husband George (obviously, former President of the U.S.) [as seen in Time magazine’s “Verbatim”, May 10, 1999].

  • “When you talk to the average person, they are not all victims of homicide.” —Jerry Brown, currently Mayor of Oakland, California; formerly Governor of California; and formerly a U.S. Presidential candidate. Heard (twice) on the “Paul Harvey News and Comments” radio program on ABC News, June 1 (repeated on June 2), 1999.
  • This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #07 (page 1)
    Eat drink and be merry (Ecclesiastes 8:15)
    This entry is located in the following unit: Bible Quotations used in modern English (page 2)
    Economical or Business and Financial Terms

    Lists of words about economics, including an extensive range of financial and business areas.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
    electrical and electronics engineers
    Being one of the largest branches of engineering, these specialities design and develop electrical and electronic equipment and products.
    • They work with power generation and transmission; machinery controls; lighting and wiring for buildings, automobiles, and aircraft; computers; radar; communications equipment; missile guidance systems; and consumer goods; such as, television sets and appliances.
    • They may specialize in communications, computers, or power distribution equipment, or in a subdivision; such as, aviation electronic systems or in the research, development, and design of new products.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Electrical and Electronic Topics (page 1)
    Electricity, Its Past and Present Development
    Electricity and electronic tools and products are an essential element in our modern times.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 1)
    Encyclopedia of Science and Technology
    James Trefil, General Editor; Routledge; New York; 2001.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Science and Technology (page 1)
    Energy Sources and Related Information

    Lists of words about Energy Sources and additional information.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
    English History and Its Development

    Summary of how history has resulted in the development of English continued from the main page of Get Words.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
    Environment and Ecology Information
    Environment and Ecology Information.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 1)
    expeditious, expedite: foot or feet, free to move unhindered and quickly
    Origins of the words expeditious and expedite.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Amazing Histories of Words (page 1)
    Fact and Logic

    A fun way to see if you are paying attention. This activity consists of simple questions with tricky answers and may be found by going to verb forms Quiz.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #08 (page 1)
    Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24-26)
    This entry is located in the following unit: Bible Quotations used in modern English (page 2)
    Flesh and blood (Matthew 16:17)
    This entry is located in the following unit: Bible Quotations used in modern English (page 2)
    Flowers and Insects
    Insects are getting nourishment from flowers.
    —Photographed by Wolfram Bleul, E-mail: kontakt@wolframbleul.de

    This entry is located in the following unit: Views of Nature (page 1)
    Funk & Wagnalls Standard Handbook of Synonyms, Antonyms, and Prepositions
    By James C. Fernald, L.H.D.; Funk & Wagnalls; New York; 1947.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Words in Action (page 1)
    Geography and Geology Terms
    1. Almanac of Geography by National Geographic; Washington, D.C.; 2005.
    2. Introduction to Historical Geology; by Raymond C. Moore; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.; New York; 1958.
    3. Physical Geology by Anatole Dolgoff; Houghton Mifflin Company; Boston, Massachusetts; 1998.
    4. Volcanoes and Earthquakes by Jon Erickson; Tab Books, Inc.; Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania; 1987.
    5. World Explorers and Discoverers; Edited by Richard E. Bohlander; MacMillan Publishing Company; New York; 1992.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Bibliography or Lists of Glossary-Term Sources (page 1)
    Great Bear and Little Bear
    Common names and translations of Latin terms for the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor in that order.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Astronomy and related astronomical terms (page 12)
    harvester ants and vegetation
    There is general agreement among students of ant ecology that harvesters strongly alter the abundance and local distribution of flowering plants; especially, in deserts, grasslands, and other xeric (dry) habitats where the ants are most abundant.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Ant and Related Entomology Terms (page 8)
    Herodotus, Greek Traveler and Historian

    A short description of Herodotus, a well-known Greek historian.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
    Hibernation and Hibernating
    There are various kinds and conditions of hibernations unit.
    hue and cry (HYOO UHN KRIGH) (s) (noun), hue and cries (pl)
    1. A loud, noisy uproar demonstrated by a gathering of many people: A great hue and cry went up from the striking union members.
    2. Etymology: from legal Anglo-Norman (the French imported to England by William the Conqueror and used there as the official language for several hundred years following 1066): hu, "outcry" + e, "and" + cri, "cry"; the outcry calling to help pursue a felon.

    Over the years, hu e cri became hue and cry in English.

    This entry is located in the following unit: English Words in Action, Group H (page 4)
    Index of Scientific and Technological Topics

    Lists of scientific and technological subjects for your investigation and enlightenment or education that results in understanding and the spread of knowledge.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
    Inventions and Discoveries
    Rodney Carlisle; by Scientific American; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; New York; 2004.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Science and Technology (page 1)
    Lose/Loose, Use and Abuse; More about [sic] from the Last Newsletter

    I probably should have been more precise with my discussion about “lose” and the [sic] example of “loose”. Whenever we mean that something has been lost, we should NEVER say, “I loose the hounds” or “I loosened the hounds” OR “The quarter back loosed his grip on the football” when LOST is meant!

    The [sic] misuses are when people replace “lose” with “loose”. Again, I should have written, “... we NEVER ‘loose’ anything when ‘to lose’ is meant! They are two different verbs with different meanings and should not be confused. It’s certainly correct to say, “I let the dogs loose so they could run around (for example).” I maintain that it is unacceptable to say, “I loosed the dogs and I don’t know where they are” when “I lost the dogs .... ” is meant. Does this clarify the point?

    I do appreciate the comments from readers. If nothing else, they make me aware that I must be more precise and probably should not have sent the letter out when I was so tired. It was after 2:30 a.m. (where I am) when I submitted the letter to the web and I wanted to get it out to see if it would go out properly (over the internet, that is).

    For those who wrote, thank you. It means you’re paying attention and that’s better than being ignored. This reminds me of something I read recently about the “conspiracy of silence”. The phrase was coined by Sir Lewis Morris, a minor poet of the Victorian era. He wanted to be Poet Laureate in England but he never gained this honor. He claimed that critics were jealous of him and, as a result, damned his poetry when they bothered to mention it at all. He once complained at length to Oscar Wilde of this treatment, finally saying: “Oscar, there’s a conspiracy of silence against me. What shall I do?” Wilde replied simply: “Join it!”

    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #02 (page 1)
    Measurements and Mathematics Terms

    Terms that are applied to numbers utilized in math and various measurements.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 1)
    Meniscal Damage and Treatment
    Tearing or damaging the meniscus of the knee and possible therapy unit.
    NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    A U.S. government agency for space flight and aeronautical research, founded in 1958 by the National Aeronautics and Space Act.

    Its headquarters are in Washington, D.C., and its main installation is at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

    NASA's early planetary and lunar programs included Pioneer spacecraft from 1958, which gathered data for the later crewed missions, the most famous of which took the first people to the moon in Apollo 11 on July 16-24, 1969.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Astronomy and related astronomical terms (page 16)
    Ocean and Deep Sea Terms
    A list of deep sea terms.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 2)
    Ocean and Deep Sea Terms
    1. An Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life by James L. Sumich; Wm. C. Brown Publishers; Dubuque, Iowa; 1988.
    2. Marine Ecology by Jeffrey S. Levinton; State University of New York at Stony Brook; Prentice-Hall Inc.; Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; 1982.
    3. The Silent Deep by Tony Koslow; The University of Chicago Press; Chicago; 2007.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Bibliography or Lists of Glossary-Term Sources (page 1)
    odors and memory responses
    Scientists studying how sleep affects memory have found that the whiff of a familiar scent can help a slumbering brain better remember things that it learned the evening before: Research has shown that regions of the cortex, the thinking and planning part of the brain, communicate during deep sleep with a sliver of tissue deeper in the brain called the hippocampus, which records each day's memories of odors and memory responses.

    The hippocampus encodes odors and memory responses by firing sequences back in the cortex, consolidating the memory.

    Olfactory sensing pathways of odors and memory responses in the brain which lead more directly to the hippocampus than visual and auditory ones. That may be why smell can be linked so closely to memory.

    —Compiled with excerpts from
    "To sleep and to smell, and perchance to remember", by Benedict Carey;
    in The International Herald Tribune; March 9, 2007; page 8.
    This entry is located in the following unit: English Words in Action, Group O (page 1)
    oral and maxillofacial surgeon (s), oral and maxillofacial surgeons (pl) (nouns)
    Physicians who specialize in the medical problems of the jaws and the mouths: "Oral surgeons usually extract teeth, while the maxillofacial surgeons often treat patients with facial problems that are associated with the upper and lower jaw structures."
    This entry is located in the following unit: Health Care Providers, Health-Care Providers, Healthcare Providers (page 2)
    Poetry, Proverbs, Quotes, and Statements of Faith

    Compositions, both secular and of a religious nature, providing thoughts about faith and personal meditations for consideration.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 2)
    Reader Responses to U. S. Teachers and Cheating from Newsletter #9
    Dear John:

    I read your e-mail on the deplorable state of education in the United States.

    Having taught both high school and college, I must admit that the comments are quite accurate. I must say that I am certainly doing my best to maintain high standards both at the university and high school levels and your newsletters have been a great help in helping me achieve this.

    Best regards,
    James

    John,

    I enjoyed your latest newsletter about the problem of cheating and the watering down of the curricula in most academic areas. In my first teaching position almost forty years ago, I took a boy's History Regents paper away from him . . . along with his copious "cheat notes" and went to the Principal.

    The result? I almost lost my job for daring to ruin this young person's life. The same Principal later asked me to remark the State Regents exams and see if I couldn't upgrade some of them because "they weren't going to be reviewed at the state capital that year and who would know the difference."

    I'm happy to report I didn't, but it wasn't easy and the pressure on teachers to bend the rules has only grown worse. I don't know what the answers are, but you are right to highlight the problem.
    Best wishes,
    Ray

    Hi John:

    You have made some excellent points about education and Americans. I see this all the time. I have a Montessori Pre-school and we have "before and after-school kids" from three districts and it's amazing what they don't know and yet bring home "A's" and "B's".

    Have you ever read the Leipzig Connection? I ran across it in a thrift store and it's the story of how America's education came to be what it is now.

    Thanks for the wonderful newsletter. I don't say much about it but I do love getting it. You do a great job.

    Pam
    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #10 (page 1)
    Real Headlines that Tend to Confuse and so Amuse

    These are REAL Headlines with double meanings that have appeared in newspapers from around the world. The list was contributed to this newsletter by a friend; otherwise, the source is unknown.

    • March Planned For Next August
    • Blind Bishop Appointed To See
    • Lingerie Shipment Hijacked - Thief Gives Police The Slip
    • L.A. Voters Approve Urban Renewal By Landslide
    • Patient At Death's Door - Doctors Pull Him Through
    • Diaper Market Bottoms Out
    • Stadium Air Conditioning Fails - Fans Protest
    • Queen Mary Having Bottom Scraped
    • Antique Stripper to Display Wares at Store
    • Prostitutes Appeal to Pope
    • Juvenile Court to Try Shooting Defendant
    • Fund Set Up for Beating Victim's Kin
    • Killer Sentenced to Die for Second Time in 10 Years
    • Never Withhold Herpes Infection From Loved One
    • Autos Killing 110 a Day; Let's Resolve to Do Better
    • If Strike Isn't Settled Quickly, It May Last A While
    • Cold Wave Linked to Temperatures
    • Blind Woman Gets New Kidney from Dad She Hasn't Seen in Years
    • Flaming Toilet Seat Causes Evacuation at High School
    • Defendants Speech Ends in Long Sentence
    • Police Begin Campaign to Run Down Jaywalkers
    • Stiff Opposition Expected to Casketless Funeral Plan
    • Collegians are Turning to Vegetables
    • Quarter of a Million Chinese Live on Water
    • Farmer Bill Dies in House
    • Eye Drops off Shelf
    • Reagan Wins on Budget, But More Lies Ahead
    • Miners Refuse to Work after Death
    • Panda Mating Fails; Veterinarian Takes Over
    • Two Sisters Reunited after 18 Years in Checkout Counter
    • Typhoon Rips Through Cemetery; Hundreds Dead
    • New Study of Obesity Looks for Larger Test Group
    • Kids Make Nutritious Snacks
    • Deaf College Opens Doors to Hearing
    • Prosecutor Releases Probe into Undersheriff
    • Old School Pillars are Replaced by Alumni
    • Sex Education Delayed, Teachers Request Training

    And even in Germany-

    From the Mendener Zeitung: "748 Männer arbeiten im Rathaus, 312 davon sind Frauen." (748 men work in the city hall of which 312 are women).

    From the March 20, 2000, issue of DER SPIEGEL, page 270.


    That reminds me of a statement made by George W. Bush a few weeks ago when he was speaking about children and parental responsibilities; especially, of fathers. I was listening to NPR (National Public Radio) and Bush was saying, "Every father is responsible for his or her children."

    Was this an extraordinary effort on his part to be PC (politically correct)?

    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #10 (page 1)
    Reptile and Amphibian Terms
    Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America by Roger Conant; The Easton Press; Norwalk, Connecticut; 1975.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Bibliography or Lists of Glossary-Term Sources (page 1)
    Science and Technology and Global Knowledge

    The continuation of how science and technology depend on the exchange of Global Knowledge via international communication systems which started on the main page of Get Words.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 2)
    Science and Technology and Global Knowledge

    The continuation of how science and technology depend on the exchange of Global Knowledge via international communication systems which started on the main page of Get Words.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 2)
    Science and Technology from 1800 to 1899, Part 2
    A presentation of words about Science and Technology from the past.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 2)
    Science and Technology from the Past to 1799, Part 1
    An extensive list of Science and Technology terms from the past.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 2)
    Science and Technology Words
    An additional list of Science and Technology terms.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 2)
    skull and crossbones (s) (noun), skulls and crossbones (pl)
    A picture of a human skull situated above two crossed bones: This image of a skull and crossbones was used on pirates' flags as a symbol of death; however, it is sometimes currently used as a "warning label" on poisons; so, avoid, or stay away, from anything that uses such pictures!

    This information about skulls and crossbones, which is utilizing the pictures, will NOT cause you any harm!

    An image once used by pirates on their flags.
    These images are used as warnings for poisons or other deadly things.
    This entry is located in the following unit: English Words in Action, Group S (page 6)
    Sleep and Sleeping Topics or Subjects

    Terms applicable to sleeping for a greater understanding of the sleep process.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Index or Menu of Various Topics (page 2)
    Snap, Crackle, and Pop (s) (noun); Snaps, Crackles, and Pops
    There were three little elves who ran around in a kitchen promoting Rice Krispies, Frosted Rice, and Cocoa Krispies for the Kellogg's cereal company located at One Kellogg Square in Battle Creek, Michigan: Both Snap, and Pop wore tall baker's hats; while, Crackle wore a red-striped stocking cap.

    The elves derived their names from the Snap! Crackle! Pop! "sounds" that came from the Rice Krispies cereal in a bowl when milk was poured on it.

    This entry is located in the following unit: English Words in Action, Group S (page 8)
    The 106-year-old Virginia McLaurin, an African-American, was very excited to meet the Obamas in the White House and she was dancing with joy.

    Ms. McLaurin was invited as part of a Black History Month celebration. “I thought I would never live to get into the White House and I tell you I am so happy to have a black president,” she said to the smiling Barack Obama and the first lady, Michelle Obama.

    Click on this link: to see the video posted by the White House as Virginia McLaurin opens her arms wide and greets Obama with an excited "Hi!".

    This entry is located in the following unit: Videos (page 1)
    The Straight and narrow (Matthew 7: 13/14)
    This entry is located in the following unit: Bible Quotations used in modern English (page 5)
    There are dictionaries and then there are dictionaries

    My focus these days is to collect English words that are derived from Latin and Greek sources (and their definitions). This self-imposed task is being done to provide the cross-reference area with as many Latin-Greek-English words as possible in the time that I am granted for the project.

    Recently, a new book about the making of the Oxford English Dictionary, titled The Professor and the Madman — A Tale of Murder, Insanity, and the Making of the Oxford English Dictionary by Simon Winchester caught my attention. I bought the book and the audio because of my interest in lexicography.

    Also, not long ago, I received an e-mail from an American, who had recently returned to California from England, in which he asked if I could explain why the British spell their words with “our”; such as, colour and why Americans spell it (and others) with “or”; such as with color, favor, etc.

    As a result of my focus and because of the “our” and “or” question, I will be spending time in this newsletter presenting some information about dictionaries; also known as lexicons.


    The earliest dictionaries were very limited in scope

    • The earliest dictionary makers apparently were monks, men who lived in religious brotherhoods.
    • During the seventh century, before the printing press was invented, these monks worked in church libraries making notes in the margins of their hand-lettered books.
    • In those days, all books were written in Latin which was the language used in the Roman Catholic Church and in universities.
    • The common people — farmers, shopkeepers, tradesmen, children — had no books of their own. In fact, it is very unlikely that they could even read because education was limited to very few people.
    • Why did monks mark up the pages of their hand-made books? It seems the better educated monks who wrote the books wanted to make sure other monks who read the books would know what certain words meant.
    • The notes came to be called glosses, from which we get our word glossasry — a list of words with definitions.
    • For a thousand years, these glosses stayed in the books in church libraries. No one did anything with them.
    • The term “dictionary” in one of its Latin forms (dictionarius, a collection of words) was used c. 1225 by an English scholar, John Garland, as the title for a manuscript of Latin words to be learned by memory.
    • The words were not arranged in alphabetical order but in groups according to subject.
    • This Dictionarius, was used only for the teacher’s classroom work in teaching Latin, and it contained no English except for a few interlined glosses (translations of single words).
    • In the seventeenth century, some monks got the idea of making lists of those Latin glosses and translating them into English. The first dictionary, or glossary, was actually a list of Latin-English glosses. Monks in other countries also compiled Latin-French, Latin-Italian, and Latin-Spanish glossaries.
    • Later in 1604, Robert Cawdrey, an English schoolmaster, published a dictionary, titled A Table Alphabeticall conteyning and teaching the true writing and understanding of hard usual English Wordes …with the interpretation thereof by plaine English words, gathered for the benefit & helpe of Ladies, Gentlewomen, or any other unskilfull persons.
    • Although his dictionary included only difficult words, there is one principle of dictionary making that Cawdrey is remembered for today: he listed words in alphabetical order.
    • Cawdrey, perhaps recalling the complicated groupings of words in some earlier dictionaries, stressed the importance of the word “alphabeticall” in his title.
    • Apparently some “unskilfull persons” in his day (as in ours) had not taken the trouble to learn their ABC’s; so, he said, “Thou must learne the Alphabet, to wit, the order of the Letters as they stand.”

      Samuel Johnson and A Dictionary of the English Language

    • In 1747, after Lord Philip Chesterfield had negotiated with Samuel Johnson to write a new dictionary that could be used by all of the people, Johnson started the project.
    • So confident was Johnson of his literary powers that he offered to write the dictionary in three years. Friends warned him that such a short time wouldn’t be enough. It had taken forty French scholars forty years to write a French dictionary. Shouldn’t he reconsider? “Nonsense,” Johson replied in effect. “Any Englishman is the equal of forty Frenchmen. Three years! That’s all it will take.”
    • In 1755, Johnson finished A Dictionary of the English Language— eight years of “sluggishly treading the track of the alphabet,” he told friends, not three — and he wasn’t at all satisfied with the work he produced; but during those years, he had learned a great deal about words and how they make up language.
    • In his Preface, Johnson started by writing: “It is the fate of those who toil at the lower employments of life, to be rather driven by the fear of evil, than attracted by the prospect of good; to be exposed to censure, without hope of praise; to be disgraced by miscarriage, or punished for neglect, where success would have been without applause, and diligence without reward.”
    • “Among these unhappy mortals is the writer of dictionaries; whom mankind have considered, not as the pupil, but the slave of science, the pioneer of literature, doomed only to remove rubbish and clear obstructions from the paths of Learning and Genius, who presses forward to conquest and glory, without bestowing a smile on the humble drudge that facilitates their progress.”
    • “Every other authour may aspire to praise; the lexicographer can only hope to escape reproach, and even this negative recompense has been yet granted to very few.”
    • “Later in his Preface, he wrote: “Of the event of this work, for which, having laboured it with so much application, I cannot but have some degree of parental fondness, it is natural to form conjectures.”
    • “Those who have been persuaded to think well of my design, require that it should fix our language, and put a stop to those alterations which time and chance have hitherto been suffered to make in it without opposition. With this consequence I will confess that I flattered myself for a while; but now begin to fear that I have indulged expectation which neither reason or experience can justify.”
    • “When we see men grow old and die at a certain time one after another, from century to century, we laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years; and with equal justice may the lexicographer be derided, who being able to produce no example of a nation that has preserved their words and phrases from mutability, shall imagine that his dictionary can embalm his language, and secure it from corruption and decay, that it is in his power to change sublunary* nature, or clear the world at once from folly, vanity, and affectation.” [*sublunary: of this world, earthly].
    • After a lengthy explanation of how it is impossible to prevent changes in a language, especially when “As by the cultivation of various sciences, a language is amplified, it will be more furnished with words deflected from their original sense ….”; he goes on to say, “If the changes that we fear be thus irresistible, what remains but to acquiesce with silence, as in the other insurmountable distresses of humanity?”
    • “It remains that we retard what we cannot repel, that we palliate* what we cannot cure. Life may be lengthened by care, though death cannot be ultimately defeated: tongues, like governments, have a natural tendency to degeneration; we have long preserved our constitution, let us make some struggles for our language.” [*palliate, to make less intense or severe; to mitigate].
    • Johnson’s work was a landmark in the history of dictionary making. It was the first time anyone had put down on paper the words that actually made up the English language, and it set basic guides for the craft of dictionary making. Lexicographers for the next two centuries would follow many of the principles Johnson had established.

      Early American dictionary makers

    • Near the end of the 18th century, more than 20% of the world’s English-speaking people were living in the United States.
    • Their policy of universal education indicated a need for an English dictionary designed for use in primary schools.
    • In 1798, a Connecticut schoolmaster, Samuel Johnson, Jr., produced in New Haven, Conneticut, a little book titled A School Dictionary.
    • Also in 1800, The Columbian Dictionary, by Caleb Alexander of Massachusetts, had about 32,000 entries in which American usage was recognized by a few words (cent, dime, dollar, elector, congress, Congressional, lengthy, minute-man, Presidential, Yanky), and honor, favor, color, and troop were spelled as such.
    • The Columbian Dictionary also included some alternatives such as: calendar-kalendar, chequer-checker, screen-skreen, sponge-spunge.
    • Alexander included simple words, providing a vocabulary that could reasonably be called “complete.”
    • Was this where Noah Webster got his ideas for respelling the “our” words (colour, favour) to “or” (color, favor)?

      Noah Webster, the “father” of American dictionaries

    • One American who objected to the “personal style” of Samuel Johnson’s dictionary was a “sober, pious” New England schoolmaster named Noah Webster. “Johnson was always depressed by poverty,” he said tartly. “He was naturally indolent and seldom wrote until he was urged by want. Hence … he was compelled to prepare his manuscripts in haste.”
    • In his view, dictionary making allowed no compromise, permitted no weakness. Webster set a standard for dictionary making that continues to this day.
    • He attended Yale College and, five years after graduation, in 1783, he published his Blue-Back Speller, America’s first speller, grammar, and reader.
    • This book sold an amazing million copies a year at a time when the entire populatiion of the United States was only 23 million. It stayed in print over a century (under the titles The American Spelling Book and later The Elementary Spelling Book) and sold a total of 70 million copies.
    • Apparently, the money the book earned made it possible for Webster to spend his tlme doing what he really wanted; that is, writing dictionaries. To prepare himself for the task, he set about studying languages and in time learned twenty-six, including Anglo-Saxon and Sanskrit.
    • The basic reason Americans needed a dictionary of their own, Webster believed, was that American English was different from the English of Johnson’s day. Settlers in America had spoken English for two centuries and had invented their own words to describe conditions in this new land.
    • In 1806, Webster published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. By compendious, he meant “concise, brief, a summary.” His dictionary is important in the story of dictionaries because in the long history of lexicography, it showed for the first time how Americans spoke English.
    • Of the 37,000 words in Webster’s dictionary, about 5,000 were native to America and never before had appeared in any British-English dictionary. Squash, skunk, raccoon, hickory, caucus, presidency, congressional, bullfrog, and applesauce are a few examples.
    • Like Johnson, Webster searched for words in books, but he also tried something new — and established a principle of dictioinary making that has been followed ever since. He began recording words as he heard people use them. In doing so, he followed Johnson’s theory that spoken words make up a language.
    • Webster had a few ideas about fixing the spelling of some words. The way many words were spelled, he noted, had no relation to the way they were pronounced.
    • This offended Webster’s neat and orderly way of doing things. As he went about writing the Compendious, he changed the spelling of many words to match their sounds. He dropped the silent “u” in the English spelling of honour and favour and wrote honor and favor, and the final “k” in musick, logick, and publick and used instead music, logic, and public. He also dropped the second “l” in traveller, labelled, and farewell and transposed the last two letters in English words like centre and theatre.
    • Webster also tried to simplify the spelling of other words by dropping silent letters: “e” from imagine, “e” from definite, “b” from thumb, “a” from feather, and “a” from head. For these spellings, he substituted imagin, definit, thum, fether, and hed. Most people were not ready for these new versions and so such spellings never became acceptable.
    • For some unexplainable reasons, Americans went along, over two hundred years ago, with favor, honor, public, logic, music, traveler, and labeled. They also agreed to switch the “re” to “er” in center and theater; but they strongly objected to most of the other changes Webster suggested.
    • We still write thumb with a “b”, head and feather with an “a”, farewell with a double “l”, and imagine and definite with a final “e” even though these letters serve no purpose; except perhaps to show the unpredictable way language develops and that people, not grammarians or dictionary makers, primarily determine how we spell the words we read and write.
    • Samuel Johnson’s suggestion that dictionary makers, “retard what we cannot repel” ; that is, slow the process of drastic changes in English since they cannot be stopped or rejected; may actually be working. Dictionaries are often the “authority” that we consult when people have doubts about the “correct” meanings and applications of words and so may indeed provide stability in the language.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #07 (page 1)
    Thermometer and Temperature Scales
    Historical perspectives of thermoscopes to thermometers.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Words at Work in the Print Media: INDEX (page 1)
    Thermometer and Temperature Scales
    The historical background of Thermometer and Temperature Scales.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Index of Scientific and Technological Topics (page 2)
    Think and Grow Rich by Napoleon Hill (Part 1)
    1. "One of the most common causes of failure is the habit of quitting when one is overtaken by temporary defeat."
    2. How does anyone learn the art of converting defeat into stepping stones to opportunity?
    3. All achievements have their beginnings in ideas because thoughts are things!
    • Ideas can be powerful things when they are mixed with a definite purpose, persistence, and a burning desire for their translations into definite objectives.
    • One sound idea is all that a person needs to achieve success.
    • Achievements begin with a state of mind and with a definite purpose.
    • Success comes to those who become success conscious. Failure comes to those who indifferently allow themselves to become failure conscious.
    • One of the principles of success is desire: knowing what one wants.
    • Whatever the mind of man can conceive and believe, it can achieve.

    • DESIRE is the starting point of ALL achievement!
    • Choosing a definite goal places all the energy, all the will power, all the effort, everything, back to that goal.
    • Desiring success with a state of mind that becomes an obsession, then planning definite ways and means to acquire success, and backing those plans with persistence which does not recognize failure, will bring success.
    • There is one quality which a person must possess to win, and that is definiteness of purpose, the knowledge of what one wants, and a burning desire to possess it.
      1. If the thing you wish to do is right, and you believe in it, go ahead and do it! Put your dream across, and never mind what "they" say if you meet with temporary defeat, for "they", perhaps, do not know that every failure brings with it the seed of an equivalent success.

    • A burning desire to be and to do is the starting point from which the dreamer must take off.
    • Dreams are not born of indifference, laziness, or lack of ambition.
    • Remember that all who succeed in life get off to a bad start, and pass through many heartbreaking struggles before they "arrive".
    • No one is ready for any thing until that person believes that it can be acquired. The state of mind must be belief, not mere hope or wish.

    —Excerpts compiled from
    Think and Grow Rich: by Napoleon Hill; Fawcett Publications, Inc.;
    Greenwich, Connecticut; 1961; pages 19-47.
    This entry is located in the following unit: More Mental Control and Development?
    Yes, you can!
    (page 1)
    Think and Grow Rich by Napoleon Hill (Part 2)
    1. There are no limitations to the mind except those we acknowledge.
    2. Both poverty and riches are the offspring of thought.

    Faith is the visualization of, and belief in attainment of desire

    Faith is the head chemist of the mind and when faith is blended with thought, the subconscious mind instantly picks up the vibration, translates it into its spiritual equivalent, and transmits it to Infinite Intelligence, as in the case of prayer.

    • Faith is a state of mind which may be induced, or created, by affirmation or repeated instructions to the subconscious mind, through the principle of autosuggestion.
    • Repetition of affirmation of orders to your subconscious mind is the only known method of voluntary development of the emotion of faith.
    • Your belief, or faith, is the element which determines the action of your subconscious mind.
    • It is essential that people encourage the positive emotions as dominating forces of their minds, and to discourage and to eliminate negative emotions.
    • It is a well-known fact that people come, finally, to believe whatever they repeat to them selves, whether the statements are true or false. People are what they are because of the dominating thoughts which they permit to occupy their minds.
    • Thoughts which are mixed with any of the feelings of emotions constitute a "magnetic" force which attracts other similar or related thoughts.
    • The law of autosuggestion, through which anyone may rise to altitudes of achievement which stagger the imagination, is well described in the following composition:

      If you think you are beaten, you are,
      If you think you dare not, you don't.
      If you like to win, but you think you can't,
      It is almost certain you won't.

      If you think you'll lose, you're lost
      For out of the world we find,
      Success begins with a person's will;
      It's all in the state of mind.

      If you think you are outclassed, you are,
      You've got to think high to rise,
      You've got to be sure of yourself before
      You can ever win a prize.

      Life's battles don't always go
      To the strongest or fastest woman or man,
      But sooner or later, those who win
      Are those WHO THINK THEY CAN!
    —Excerpts compiled from
    Think and Grow Rich: by Napoleon Hill; Fawcett Publications, Inc.;
    Greenwich, Connecticut; 1961; pages 48-73.
    This entry is located in the following unit: More Mental Control and Development?
    Yes, you can!
    (page 1)
    tire structures and features
    A tire is a flexible container of compressed air which supports the vehicle's load; propels a vehicle forward, backward and side-to-side, stops the vehicle, and cushions the load from road irregularities.

      Different parts of tire tread work as a team to keep the car on the road.

    1. Blocks in the middle of the tire form the tire's gripping surface or traction.
    2. Ribs, which are next to the blocks, also form the tire's gripping features consisting of straight-lined rows of blocks that create a circumferential contact "band".
    3. Sipes make the tire bend more to improve handling and consist of slit-like grooves in the tread blocks that allow the blocks to move with added flexibility, and increases traction by creating an additional biting edge.

      Sipes are especially helpful on ice, light snow, and loose dirt.

    4. Shoulders add grip when the car is cornering.

      They provide continuous contact with the road while maneuvering as they wrap slightly over the inner and outer sidewall of a tire.

    5. Grooves are the drains which the tire squeezes water along as it presses the road and pushes it out to the side.

      A low void ratio groove means more rubber is in contact with the road while a high void ratio increases the ability to drain water.

      Whether a tire has a high or low void ratio depends on the tire's intended use.

    6. Dimples are little depressions that are part of the shoulder.

      Such indentations in the tread improve cooling.

    7. Belt, the reinforcement layer extending around the outer circumference of the carcass under the tread.

      It acts like an iron hoop in improving the stiffness of the tread area. In the case of truck and bus tires, the belt is more heavily reinforced compared to passenger car tires.

    8. Tread is that part of a tire which contacts the road surface.

      The tread consists of a layer of rubber, compounded to suit the application purpose of the tire, and the thickness serves to protect the belt and carcass.

      The tread pattern functions to improve water drainage, providing traction, braking, and cornering characteristics; as well as, a longer tread life.

    Automobile tire surface structure or tire tread.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Automobile or Related Car Terms (page 5)
    Tongue: Body Part and Language
    The "tongue" term may be applied to both a body part in the mouth and an extensive reference to "language" unit.
    Tribology and Nanotribology
    A sub-field of tribology involving contact geometries unit.
    U. S. Teachers and Cheating

    A few articles about recent trends in U.S. education caught my attention in the last few weeks that represent a SAD turn for our modern educational system. I am including a few snippets for you to consider.

      "In American Schools Today, Everyone Is in the Top Half" by Jeff Zorn from Santa Clara University near San Francisco, California, as seen in the June 2, 2000, issue of the International Herald Tribune gives one example of educational deception in the U.S.

    • Among other things, he said, "At least I know I inflate my grades. Younger colleagues don't remember when B was an honor grade, D's and F's hardly the rarities they are now. Today, if students complete assignments, however shoddily, the instructor finds a way to stick a C on their transcripts."
    • At the end of the article, Mr. Zorn concluded: "Academic under preparation is the American norm today. High schools and colleges expect less from students, and students respond accordingly. On tests administered internationally, U.S. students score low but assess their own abilities high; higher than any other country's kids."
    • "In colleges across the United States today, straight-A high school graduates need remedial work in courses less demanding than those I took in Class III at Latin School in 1920."

    Educators Attempt to Find "Educational Success" by Cheating

    "To Raise Test Scores, Schools Pressure Teachers to Cheat" by Jay Mathews and Amy Argetsinger as seen in the June 3-4, 2000, issue of the International Herald Tribune.

    "Barbara McCarroll was already puzzled and a little upset about her fifth-grade students" low test scores when her boss at Eastgate Elementary in Columbus, Ohio, approached her. How was it, the principal snapped, that the same children had done so much better on standardized exams the year before?"

    "After eight years of teaching, Ms. McCarroll knew it paid to be frank with children, so she asked them. She was not prepared for the answer: 'Well, Ms. McCarroll, that's because they gave us the answers and you didn't.' "

    "At a time when superintendents are under pressure to increase test scores and hold principals and teachers accountable for student success, talk of cheating dominates the conversation in education circles."

    "In New York City, cheating was found to be so rampant that it led to the resignation of the schools chief. A special investigator found that one principal had students fill out their answers on scrap paper. Only when they came up with the right answers did she give them the official answer sheet to fill out."

    And the concluding paragraph: "At another New York school, a seventh-grade teacher allegedly left answers near the pencil sharpener, then urged her students to sharpen their pencils."

    Some Schools Change the Meaning of "Top 10%"

    In an article titled, "College Entry in U.S. Inspires New Calculation Some High Schools Cram Kids Into Top 10%" by Daniel Golden in the May 16, 2000, issue of the Wall Street Journal Europe, shows another form of educational deception.


    "Everything is bigger in Texas, even 10%"

    Prominently displayed in Shirley Faske's office at Westlake High School is a notice advising students that they must rank "in the top 10%" of their graduating class to gain automatic admission to a Texas public university.

    The writer continues, "But last year, suburban Westlake crammed 63 of its 491 seniors, or 12.8%, into the top 10%, violating the laws of mathematics - and of the Lone Star State."

    "Such finagling threatens to undermine the movement in the U.S. to link college admission to high-school class rank."

    Is this more of Dumbing Down our Kids (1995, St. Martin's Press) as presented in by Charles J. Sykes in his book of the same title? The subtitle is, "Why American Children Feel Good about Themselves but Can't Read, Write, or Add".


    A few of his points include:


    "The dumbing down of America's students is a direct result of the dumbing down of the curriculum and the standards of American schools —the legacy of a decades-long flight from learning."

    "American students are unable to effectively compete with the rest of the industrialized world, because our schools teach less, expect less, and settle for less than do those of other countries."

    "Even as evidence mounts that American students are lacking in basic academic skills such as writing, reading [including vocabulary skills], and mathematics, schools are increasingly emphasizing so-called 'affective' learning that deals with the feelings, attitudes, and beliefs of students, rather than addressing what they know or can do."

    "As both standards and achievement have fallen, American schools have inflated grades, adjusted or fudged test scores, or dumbed down the tests altogether to provide the illusion of success. When those measure have been insufficient, they have changed their definitions of 'success'. "

    "In the name of 'equity,' 'fairness,' 'inclusiveness,' and 'self-esteem,' standards of excellence are being eroded throughout American education. Educational levelers have become increasingly aggressive in their attacks on ability grouping, programs for the gifted and talented, and distinctions, such as graduation honors, for the best and brightest students."


    Do the contemporary articles produced above show any relationship to Charles Sykes' book?

    So what does the foregoing have to do with this newsletter and the Latin-Greek Cross References?

    The point that I would like to make is that if you were deprived of a proper education; especially, in the rich contributions of Latin and Greek elements in English, then you may take advantage of the sources provided in the Latin-Greek Cross References located via the links at this URL: Word Info.

    If you did learn Latin (and Greek) in school, then you will have an even greater appreciation of the family arrangements of the English words that are derived from the many Latin and Greek sources.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Focusing on Words Newsletter #09 (page 1)
    verb forms and their functions
    The (verbs) entry at the end of the four indicated verbs presents the principal tenses that are used with the "persons"; such as,
  • First person, the one who is speaking: I, singular; and we, plural.
  • Second person, the one who is spoken to: you, singular; and you, plural.
  • Third person, the one who is spoken about: he, she, it, singular; and they, plural.
  • Plus the numbers: (s) = singular (only one of something) or (pl) = plural (more than one).
  • Examples of the (verbs) and what they are indicating:

    abdicate, abdicates; abdicated; abdicating (verbs)

    abdicate [first person (s) and (pl), second person (s) and (pl), plus third person (pl)], abdicates [third person (s)] (see the examples shown in the "Present Tenses" below);

    abdicated [past tense, (s) and (pl)];

    abdicating [present progressive, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect] (verbs)


    The full range of applicable conjugation formats:

      Present Tenses

    • I abdicate (singular); We abdicate (plural)
    • You abdicate (singular); You abdicate (plural)
    • He, She, It abdicates (singular); They abdicate (plural)

    • Past Tenses

    • I abdicated (singular); We abdicated (plural)
    • You abdicated (singular); You abdicated (plural)
    • He, She, It abdicated (singular); They abdicated (plural)

    • Future Tenses

    • I will abdicate (singular); We will abdicate (plural)
    • You will abdicate (singular); You will abdicate (plural)
    • He, She, It will abdicate (singular); They will abdicate (plural)

    • Present Progressive Tenses

    • I am abdicating (singular); We are abdicating (plural)
    • You are abdicating (singular); You are abdicating (plural)
    • He, She, It is abdicating (singular); They are abdicating (plural)

    • Present Perfect Tenses

    • I have been abdicating (singular); We have been abdicating (plural)
    • You have been abdicating (singular); You have been abdicating (plural)
    • He, She, It has been abdicating (singular); They have been abdicating (plural)

    • Past Perfect Tenses

    • I had been abdicating (singular); We had been abdicating (plural)
    • You had been abdicating (singular); You had been abdicating (plural)
    • He, She, It had been abdicating (singular); They had been abdicating (plural)

    • Future Perfect Tenses

    • I will have been abdicating (singular); We will have been abdicating (plural)
    • You will have been abdicating (singular); You will have been abdicating (plural)
    • He, She, It will have been abdicating (singular); They will have been abdicating (plural)
    This entry is located in the following unit: verb (s), verbs (pl) (page 1)
    weights and measures
    Units and standards for expressing the amount of some quantity; such as, length, capacity, or weight.

    The science of measurement standards and methods is known as metrology.

    Today the chief systems are the English units of measurement and the metric system

    The United States is one of the few countries still using the English system; all other major nations have either converted to the metric system or committed themselves to conversion.

    The English system is much older and is said to be less practical than the metric system, and in the United States there has been considerable discussion in favor of adopting the metric system as the principal system; however, attempts to legislate such a change in the U.S. Congress have failed.

    The basic units of the English system, the yard of length and the pound of mass, are now defined in terms of the metric standards, the meter of length and the kilogram of mass.

    This entry is located in the following unit: Measurements and Mathematics Terms (page 10)
    Words of Science and the History behind Them
    Isaac Asimov; Houghton Mifflin Company; Boston; 1959.
    This entry is located in the following unit: Sources of Information; Science and Technology (page 1)