You searched for: “abdominal
abdominal (adjective)
Referring to the largest hollow space of the body, between the diaphragm (any of several large muscles, found in humans and other mammals) and the top of the pelvic cavity and surrounded by the spine and the abdominal muscles and others (muscles of the front and side walls of the abdominal cavity): Jane had to go to the doctor because she was experiencing abdominal pains which were making her sick.

A stomach ache has been defined as an abominable pain in the abdominal area.

—Anonymous
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
(Greek: the soft part of the body between the ribs and the hip, flank, loin; denotes the flank or loins and the abdominal wall or a part of the abdomen)
(Greek: entrails, intestines, viscera [internal organs collectively; especially, those in the abdominal cavity])
Word Entries containing the term: “abdominal
abdominal adhesion
The holding together of tissue surfaces of abdominal organs, usually involving the intestines and causing an obstruction.

The condition may be a result of surgery or the result of a trauma or chronic inflammation. The patient with this condition experiences an abdominal distention, pain, nausea, vomiting, plus an increased pulse rate which might require surgery to improve the person's situation.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
abdominal aorta
The largest arterial conduit (channel) below the diaphragm.

This term refers to the portion of the aorta (largest artery in the body) below the diaphragm to the bifurcation (split into two parts) into the right and left common iliac arteries or the upper and largest, part of the bony pelvic girdle.

It supplies blood to the abdominal viscera, pelvic organs, and lower extremities.

The abdominal aorta provides blood to the abdominal structures; such as, the testes, ovaries, kidneys, and stomach.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
abdominal aortic aneurysm, AAA
A distended and weakened area in the wall of the abdominal aorta, more common in those who suffer from atherosclerosis or the progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries over time.

This is known to occur to some degree with aging, but other risk factors that accelerate this process have been identified; including: high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and family history for atherosclerotic disease.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
abdominal aortography
A radiographic (x-ray or gamma ray) study of the abdominal aorta after the introduction of a contrast medium through a catheter in the femoral artery.
abdominal aponeurosis
The conjoined sheet-like tendons of the oblique and transverse muscles of the abdomen.
abdominal arteries
The arteries that branch from the forward surface of the abdominal aorta to supply the abdominal part of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.

The celiac artery supplies the front part of the intestine, the superior mesenteric artery supplies the middle intestine, and the inferior (lower) mesenteric artery supplies the back section of the intestine.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
abdominal bandage; ABD pad
A broad multilayered absorbent gauze or other material commonly used after abdominal surgery.
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
abdominal binder (s) (noun); abdominal binders (pl)
A bandage or elasticized wrap that is applied around the lower part of the torso to support the abdomen: An abdominal binder is sometimes applied after surgery to decrease discomfort, and so it increases a patient's ability to begin ambulatory (walking) activities and and to increase recovery.
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
abdominal breathing
1. Breathing in which the abdominal muscles perform the major part of the respiratory effort.

Such breathing may be seen in various abnormal conditions; such as, cerebrovascular accident, spinal cord injury, and coma.

Singers practice this method so they can enhance their vocal performances.

2. Breathing which is supplemented by abdominal wall muscles that compress the contents of the abdomen and indirectly raise the diaphragm.

This kind of deep breathing is shown by the expansion of the abdomen rather than the chest when breathing.

It is generally considered a healthier and fuller way to ingest oxygen, and it is often used as a therapy for hyperventilation, anxiety disorders and stuttering.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
abdominal cavity (ab DAHM uh nuhl KAHV i tee) (s) (noun), abdominal cavities (pl)
1. The space between the stomach area and the spine which contains a number of crucial organs: The abdominal cavity includes the lower part of the esophagus, the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder; as well as, associated tissues and blood and lymphatic vessels all of which are surrounded by the flat band of fibrous tissue below the skin that covers the underlying tissues and separates the different layers of tissue.
2. Etymology: from Latin abdomen, abdominis, "belly" and from medical Latin abdominalis.

The stomach (which is in the abdominal area) is lined with thirty-five million glands that produce about three quarts (2.85 liters) of gastric juices daily. Hydrochloric acid makes up roughly five percent of these juices and, together with other acids and various enzymes, constantly works to digest food particles.

—Compiled from The Body Almanac by Neil McAleer;
Doubleday & Company, Inc.; Garden City, New York; 1985; page 186.
abdominal crisis
A general term for severe abdominal pain resulting from several possible causes.

It usually refers to pain which occurs during sickle cell anemia crisis or that results from syphilis.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1) cris-, crit-, cri- + (page 1)
abdominal crunch
A physical exercise similar to a sit-up in which the head and shoulders are raised slightly off the ground from a supine position or while lying on the back.
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
abdominal decompression
An obstetric technique in which the abdomen is enclosed in a chamber which permits surrounding pressures to be controlled during the first stage of child labor.

The technique is intended to reduce pain and to shorten labor during the birth of a child or children.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 1) -al; -ial, -eal (page 1)
abdominal delivery
1. Delivery of a child through an incision in the abdomen; also known as, cesarean section.
2. An obstetric procedure which involves the delivery of the fetus through an abdominal incision.

Cesarian sections account for about one fifth of all births in the U.S.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2)
abdominal examination (s) (noun), abdominal examinations (pl)
1. A hands-on evaluation of the abdominal cavity to identify abnormalities, if there are any, based on a change in size, shape, consistency, or sound on percussion of the organs found inside.
2. The physical evaluation of a patient's abdomen with visual inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation.

The visual examination of the normally oval shape of the abdominal surface while the patient is lying on his or her back may reveal abnormal surface features indicating the effects of a disease, surgery, or injury.

Below the surface tumors, fluid accumulation, or hypertrophy of the liver or spleen may be seen as an abnormal surface feature.

Auscultation or listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope) may reveal vascular sounds that provide information about arterial disorders; such as, aortic aneurysms (any swelling) of the aorta and bowel sounds that indicate intestinal function.

In a pregnant patient, auscultation can detect fetal heartbeat and blood circulation in the placenta.

Percussion (tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes) helps to determination the condition of internal organs while palpation (feeling the size, shape, or firmness of body parts) is used to detect areas of tenderness or rigidity, muscle tone and skin condition, and the shapes and sizes of organs or masses under the surface of the skin.

abdominal fascia, visceral abdominal fascia, parietal abdominal fascia, extraperitoneal fascia
A term for the fascia (sheet or band of connective tissue covering or binding together parts of the body; such as, muscles or organs) that forms part of the general layer which lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and investing (process of covering) the abdominal organs.

It is subdivided into visceral abdominal fascia (internal organs of the abdomen), parietal abdominal fascia (connective tissue lining the wall of the abdominal cavity), and extraperitoneal fascia (thin layer of connective tissue and adipose or fat tissue).

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2) peri- (page 1)
abdominal fistula
1. A tract leading from one of the abdominal viscera to the external surface.
2. An abnormal passage or tract leading from an abdominal organ to the external surface of the abdomen.

In a colostomy, a passage from the bowel to an opening on the surface of the abdomen is surgically created.

A colostomy is a medical operation in which part of the colon is removed and a hole is made in the stomach through which solid waste can leave the body.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2)
abdominal gestation, ectopic pregnancy
1. Development of a fetus outside the uterus in the abdominal cavity.
2. The implantation of a fertilized ovum outside the uterus but within the peritoneal cavity or the space within the abdomen that contains the intestines, the stomach, and the liver and which is held together by thin membranes.
3. An ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg implants in a location outside the uterus where it attempts to develop.

The word ectopic means "in an abnormal place or position" where the most common site is the fallopian tube, the tube that normally carries eggs from the ovary to the uterus.

In this case, ectopic pregnancy can also occur in the ovary, the abdomen, and the cervical canal (the opening from the uterus to the vaginal canal).

The phrases tubal pregnancy, ovarian pregnancy, cervical pregnancy, and abdominal pregnancy all refer to the specific areas of an ectopic pregnancy.

abdominal girth
1. The circumference of the abdomen, usually measured at the umbilicus (belly button).
2. The measurement of the distance around the abdomen at a specific point, usually at the level of the belly button (navel).

Measuring abdominal girth is used to diagnose and monitor:

  • Obesity or the build up of fluid in the abdomen, often caused by liver failure or heart failure.
  • Buildup of intestinal gas, usually caused by the blockage or an obstruction in the intestines.
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2)
abdominal hernia
1. A hernia protruding through a defect or weakened portion of the abdominal wall.

An umbilical hernia is an example of a type of abdominal hernia or an abnormal protrusion of internal abdominal contents into a defect in the umbilical area which is common in the newborn child.

2. Any of various hernias (as an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, or spigelian hernia) in which an anatomical part; such as, a section of the intestine that protrudes through an opening, tear, or weakness in the abdominal wall musculature (a system or an arrangement of muscles in a body or a body part).
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2)
abdominal hysterectomy, abdomino-hysterectomy
The surgical removal of the uterus through an incision made in the abdominal wall, as opposed to a vaginal hysterectomy.

A vaginal hysterectomy refers to the removal of the uterus through a surgical incision within the vagina, as opposed to an abdominal hysterectomy. With a vaginal hysterectomy, the scar from the procedure is not outwardly visible.

abdominal inguinal ring
The internal opening of the inguinal (groin) canal, bounded inferiorly by the inguinal (groin) ligament, medially by the inferior epigastric vessels, and above and laterally by the lower free border of the transversus abdominis muscle (broad, flat muscle of the abdomen).
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2)
abdominal muscle, abs
One of a large group of muscles in the front of the abdomen that assists in maintaining regular breathing movements, supports the muscles of the spine while lifting, and which keeps abdominal organs in place.

Abdominal muscles are the target of many exercises; such as, sit-ups. Abdominal muscles are informally known as the abs.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2)
abdominal muscles
1. A large group of muscles in the front of the abdomen that assists in the regular breathing movement and supports the muscles of the spine while lifting and keeping abdominal organs; such as, the intestines in place.
2. The group of four muscles which make up the abdominal wall, consisting of:

  • The external oblique (the most superficial of the four, a muscle from the fifth to twelfth ribs) whose fibers are directed downward and medially from the lower ribs to the linea alba (a fibrous band) and pelvis.
  • The internal oblique (a slanting, small, thin, deep muscle of the abdomen), whose fibers are directed upward and medially from the iliac crest (hip bone) and lumbodorsal fascia (loose tissue) to the lower ribs.
  • The rectus abdominis, a vertically oriented muscle from the crest of the pubis (pelvis) to the cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs and xiphoid process.
  • The transversus abdominis, whose fibers are oriented transversely (sideways or at an angle across something).

These muscles participate in a variety of functions, including flexion, side bending and rotation of the trunk, stabilization of the trunk in the upright posture, the expiratory phase of respiration, coughing, and Valsalva's maneuver.

The term Valsalva's maneuver is a maneuver in which the patient holds his or her breath or gives a voluntary cough or sneeze to produce pain.

These activities, holding the breath, coughing, or sneezing; increase the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid which enlarges the pressure against the already pressured nerve, causing pain and numbness. The location of this intensified pain also contributes to the medical diagnosis.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2)
abdominal nephrectomy
1. The surgical removal of a kidney through an abdominal incision.
2. Removal of the kidney by an incision through the anterior or front of the abdominal wall; performed by either a transperitoneal (across the smooth serous tissue membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen) or extraperitoneal (outside the tissue membrane) technique.
abdominal pain
1. Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region; generally associated with functional disorders, tissue injuries, or diseases.
2. Pain in the abdominal cavity.

Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect a major problem with one of the organs in the abdomen: such as, appendicitis or a perforated intestine, or it may result from a fairly minor problem; such as, excess buildup of intestinal gas.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2)
abdominal paracentesis
1. The surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity for the removal of fluid for diagnosis or treatment.
2. A puncture of the wall of a fluid-filled cavity with a hollow needle to draw off the contents for medical diagnosis.
abdominal pressure
Pressure surrounding the bladder from rectal, gastric, or intraperitoneal pressure or the area that contains the abdominal organs.
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 2) -al; -ial, -eal (page 2)
abdominal quadrants; left upper quadrant, left lower quadrant, right upper quadrant, right lower quadrant
Any of four topographic areas of the abdomen divided by two imaginary lines, one vertical and one horizontal, intersecting at the umbilicus (belly button) as determined from the front of the body.

The divisions are the left upper quadrant (LUQ), the left lower quadrant (LLQ), the right upper quadrant (RUQ), and the right lower quadrant (RLQ).

  • Left upper quadrant (LUQ): left lobe of liver, stomach, transverse colon, splenic flexure, pancreas, left kidney, and spleen.
  • Left lower quadrant (LLQ): small intesine, left ureter, sigmoid flexure, descending colon, bladder if distended, left spermatic duct in the male; left ovary and left tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
  • Richt upper quadrant (RUQ): right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of transverse colon, part of pylorus, hepatic flexure, right kidney, and duodenum.
  • Right lower quadrant (RLQ): cecum, ascending colon, small intestine, appendix, bladder if distended, right ureter, right spermatic duct in the male; right ovary and right tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 3) -al; -ial, -eal (page 3)
abdominal reflexes
Contraction of the muscles of the abdominal wall when the the overlying skin is stimulated by stroking or scratching or by tapping neighboring bony structures.

Lacking these reflexes indicates damage to the pyramidal tract or the projection neurones in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of the brain or two groups of nerve fibers that participate in the complex and delicate coordination of motor activity arising in the brain and passing down through the spinal cord to motor cells.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 3) -al; -ial, -eal (page 3)
abdominal rescue
The emergency cesarean delivery of a fetus jeopardized during child labor or failed vaginal birth.

An indication for the need of surgical intervention include fetal distress (fetal hypoxia or low oxygen levels in the fetus) associated with dystocia (difficult or painful childbirth labor or delivery), arrested descent (interruption in the labor process), abruptio placentae (placenta prematurely separating from the wall of the uterus), or umbilical cord prolapse (slipping or falling out of place).

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 3) -al; -ial, -eal (page 3)
abdominal sponge
A flat sponge from 1/2 to 1 inch (1.27 to 2.54 cm) thick, 3 to 6 in. (7.62 to 15.24 cm) in diameter, used as packing to prevent closing or obstruction by intrusion of viscera, as a covering to prevent tissue injury, and as absorbents.
abdominal ultrasound test
An ultrasound test which provides accurate visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, biliary ducts, kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

This test is used to diagnose and locate cysts, tumors, calculi, and malformations; to document the progression of various diseases; and to guide the insertion of instruments during surgical procedures.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 3) -al; -ial, -eal (page 3) testa-, test- (page 1)
abdominal viscera
The internal organs contained or enclosed within the abdominal cavity, including the stomach, liver, intestines, spleen, pancreas, and parts of the urinary and reproductive tracts.
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 3) -al; -ial, -eal (page 3)
abdominal wall
1. The outer margins of the abdomen, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the pelvis.

Although its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the skiln, subcutaneous fat, deep fascia; abdominal muscles, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal peritoneum.

2. The lining of the abdomen, which consists partly of bone but mostly of muscle.

Several sets of muscles support and propel the torso or body; for example, the abdominal wall muscles help transfer force between the upper and lower body, and they also protect the delicate internal organs their most important function is to support the back.

The muscles of the torso extend in several directions and they help to maintain the posture and aid the spinal muscles when bending, twisting, and when doing other movements.

This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 3) -al; -ial, -eal (page 3)
abdominocyesis, abdominal pregnancy
1. An ectopic pregnancy or the development of a fertilized ovum outside the uterus, as in a Fallopian tube developing in the peritoneal cavity, usually secondary to an early rupture of a tubal pregnancy.
2. A condition in which the embryo or fetus continues to grow in the abdominal cavity after its expulsion from the tube or other site of its primary development.
This entry is located in the following unit: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 3)
celiosalpingectomy, abdominal salpingectomy (s) (noun); celiosalpingectomies, abdominal salpingectomies (pl)
Removal of one or both fallopian tubes (a pair of slender tubes that extend from each ovary to the uterus) through an abdominal incision.
endoabdominal, endo-abdominal
Within the abdomen.
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 5) endo-, end- (page 1)
intra-abdomen, intra-abdominal
Within or inside the abdomen.
This entry is located in the following units: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 5) intra- (page 1)
lateroabdominal, latero-abdominal
Relating to the sides of the abdomen; such as, the loins or flanks.
obliquus internus abdominis; internal abdominal oblique muscle
1. A small, thin, deep muscle of the abdomen which is a diagonally arranged abdominal muscle on either side of the torso.

It runs diagonally opposite underneath the external oblique.

It has a quadrilateral form originating from the hip bone (crest of the ilium), and extending to the cartilage of the lower ribs (the tenth, elenenth, and twelfth ribs).

It is innervated by the lower thoracic nerves and supplies the intercostal and lumbar arteries and this muscle protects a weak point in the abdominal wall and works with the external oblique to help twist the torso.

2. One of a pair of anterolateral (front and away from the middle line) muscles of the abdomen, lying under the external oblique muscle in the lateral and ventral part of the abdominal wall.

It is smaller and thinner than the external oblique muscle and it functions to compress the abdominal contents and assists in micturition, defecation, emesis, parturition, and forced expiration.

Both muscles acting together serve to flex the vertebral column, drawing the costal cartilages toward the pubis.

One side acting alone bends the vertebral column laterally and rotates it, drawing the shoulder of the opposite side downward.

This entry is located in the following unit: abdomin-, abdomino-, abdomen- (page 5)